Chemistry definitions unit 1

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  • Created by: Abby1907
  • Created on: 15-03-14 17:09
Relative atomic mass
The WEIGHTED average mass of an atom of that element divided by 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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Relative molecular mass
The average mass of a molecule of that element or compound divided by 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom
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First ionisation energy
Energy required to REMOVE 1 electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms producing one mole of 1+ gaseous ions
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Second ionisation energy
Energy required to remove a second electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms producing a 2+ ion
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First electron affinity
Energy change when one electron is added to each atom in a mole of neutral gaseous atoms
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Second electron affinity
Energy change when one electron is added to each ion in a mole of singly charged gaseous atoms
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Isotope
Another version of an atom with the same amount of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons
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Enthalpy
A measure of the heat content of a substance at constant pressure
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Enthalpy change
Measure of energy exchanged in a reaction at constant pressure
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Standard enthalpy of formation
Enthalpy change when ONE mole of a compound is formed in its STANDARD STATE from its elements in their STANDARD STATES under STANDARD CONDITIONS
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Standard Enthalpy of combustion
Enthalpy change when ONE mole of a substance undergoes COMPLETE COMBUSTION under STANDARD CONDITIONS with all substances being in their STANDARD STATES
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Standard Enthalpy of neutralisation
Enthalpy change when ONE mole of WATER is produced by the neutralisation of a solution of an ACID by EXCESS BASE under STANDARD CONDITIONS, with all solutions of concentration 1moldm-3
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Atom
Single neutral particle
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Standard Enthalpy of atomisation
Enthalpy change when ONE mole of GASEOUS atoms of a substance are formed from the substance in its STANDARD STATE under STANDARD CONDITIONS
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Hess' Law
The overall enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route the reaction takes
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Bond dissociation Enthalpy
Energy required to break ONE mole of gaseous bonds to form gaseous atoms
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Atomic number
Number of protons in nucleus
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Mass number
Number of protons and neutrons
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Hazard
The potential of a substance or activity to do harm
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Risk
The chance that a particular hazard will cause harm
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Functional group
The group of atoms and bond which give a series of organic compounds it's characteristic properties
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Homologous series
A family of compounds with 1. The same general formula 2. Similar chemical properties 3. Gradual variation in physical properties
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Alkane
A hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single
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Cycloalkanes
A saturated hydrocarbon with the carbon atoms in a ring
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Halogenation
Introduction of a halogen atom into an alkane molecule occurring by a free radical substitution reaction
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Free radical
An atom or a group of atoms with an unpaired electron
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Substitution reaction
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms
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Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
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Stereoisomerism
Same molecular and structural formula but different arrangements in space
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Electrophile
Species which seek out negative centres, they can accept a lone pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Nucleophile
Species which seek out positive centres, they have a lone pair of electrons to donate to form a new covalent bond
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Electronegativity
Ability to pull a pair of electrons towards itself in a covalent bond
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Mark's Rule
When an Electrophile attacks an alkene with 3 or more carbon atoms a mix of products is formed
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Inductive effect
Alkyl groups donate electron density
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The average mass of a molecule of that element or compound divided by 1/12th the mass of a carbon-12 atom

Back

Relative molecular mass

Card 3

Front

Energy required to REMOVE 1 electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms producing one mole of 1+ gaseous ions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Energy required to remove a second electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms producing a 2+ ion

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Energy change when one electron is added to each atom in a mole of neutral gaseous atoms

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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