Chemistry Core

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 09-06-15 11:17
Describe the structure of an atom.
Nucleus containing protons and neutrons and shells containing electrons.
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What are the charges of each section of an atom?
Protons=positive, neutrons=no charge and electrons=negative charge
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If electrons are added or removed from an atom then it becomes what?
Ion
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What are elements?
One type of atom only
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How many elements are there?
About 100
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What are group 0 elements in the periodic table?
Noble gases
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How many electrons do noble gases have?
8 except helium which has 2
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What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonding?
Ionic bonding is the giving and recieving of electrons and covalent is the sharing of electrons.
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What is the symbol for sodium?
Na
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What is the symbol for iron?
Fe
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What are compounds?
Two or elements mixed together in ionic or covalent bonding
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What are compounds formed from a metal and a non-metal?
Ions
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What is the type of bonding where non-metals consisting of molecules share electrons?
Covalent
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What are the two sizes of compounds?
Small molecules or large lattices
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Give a large lattice.
Sodium Chloride
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Where are transition metals found in the periodic table?
Centre
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What is mainly limestone?
Calcium Carbonate
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What is produced when limestone is heated and thermally decomposes?
Calcium Oxide and Calcium Dioxide
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What is produced when Calcium Carbonate reacts with Sulphuric Acid?
Calcium salt, Carbon Dioxide and Water
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What is the chemical formula for water?
H2O
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What is produced when Calcium Oxide reacts with water?
Calcium Hydroxide
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How is cement made?
Powdered limestone is heated in a kiln with powdered clay.
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How is mortar made?
Cement is mixed with water and sand.
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How is concrete made?
Cement is mixed with sand and aggregate.
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Where does the energy come from that is needed to produce cement and quicklime?
Burning fossil fuels
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Give some uses of limestone.
Builds houses, cathedrals, neutralises acidic soil and acid rain in rivers and lakes and used in power station chimneys to reduce sulphur dioxide and acid rain.
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What are metal ores?
Rocks with enough metal in them to make it worthwhile extracting.
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What is the process that gets limestone from the ground?
Quarrying
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Give two ways that metal ores can be extracted.
Reduction with carbon and electrolysis
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What happens when an ore is reduced?
Oxygen is removed
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Metals above what element in the reactivity series have to be extracted using electrolysis?
Carbon
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What process is used to extract metal ores below carbon in the reactivity series?
Reduction with carbon
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Electrolysis requires a liquid to conduct the electricity. What is the liquid called?
The electrolyte
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Why is electroysis more expensive than reduction with carbon?
Because it uses a lot of energy
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What reaction is used to extract copper from a solution?
Displacement reaction
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What is the displacement reaction in a word equation?
Copper sulphate + Iron (arrow) Iron Sulphate + Copper
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What are the two ways to extract copper from low-grade ores?
Bioleaching and Phytomining
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What does bioleaching use to get energy from the bond between copper and sulphur which seperates out copper from the ore in the process?
Bacteria
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What does phytomining involve?
Growing plants in soil that contain copper.
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Why is copper so expensive?
It is in short supply
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Give the typical properties of metals.
Stong, bendy and good conductors of heat and electricity.
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What causes corrosion in some metals?
Exposure to air and water
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What is metal fatigue?
When metals become bent, stressed and break.
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Why are alloys harder than pure metals?
They contain different atoms of different sizes that can't slide over each other easily.
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Give an example of an alloy.
Bronze
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Give some uses of alloys.
Jewellery and aircraft
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What is crude oil a mixture of?
Hydrocarbons
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What are hydrocarbons?
Elements or compunds that aren't chemically bonded together.
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What does a hydrocarbon contain?
A chain of hydrogen and carbon atoms
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How is crude oil seperated?
Fractiona distillation in a fractioning column
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Are hydrocarbons alkenes or alkanes?
Alkanes
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What are the first four alkanes?
Methane, ethane, propane and butane
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What does it mean if a hydrocarbon molecule chain is short?
It is more volatile, more flammable and has a lower boiling point.
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Give two uses of crude oil.
Fuels and to make plastics.
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What is released into the atmosphere when crude oil is oxidised?
Hydrogen and carbon atoms
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Give the word equation for oxidation.
Hydrocarbon + oxygen (arrow) carbon dioxide + water vapour
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What is meant by complete combustion?
Plenty of oxygen in the fuel and all of it burns.
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What is a greenhouse gas that is released from burning fuels?
Carbon dioxide
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Give two types of climate change.
Global warming and changing rainfall patterns.
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What is global dimming?
Particles of soot and ash reflecting Sunlight back into space or forming clouds that do this.
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Give three alternative renewable fuels to fossil fuels.
Ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen gas.
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How is hydrogen gas produced?
Electrolysis of water.
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What bonds do alkenes have?
C=C
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Why are alkenes unsaturated?
You can make more bonds.
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How can you test for alkenes?
Adding bromene water and if it turns colourless from orange then the substance is an alkene.
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Give two alkenes.
Ethene and Propene
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How can ethene be used to make ethanol?
Hydrated with steam in the presence of a nickel catalyst.
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What renewable resources are used to make ethanol?
Sugar (arrow) carbon dioxide + ethanol
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What are polymers?
Lots of joint together small alkene molecules (monomers) to form large molecules (polymers)
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What is produced if two ethene molecules join together?
Polyethene
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What does poly mean?
Many in Latin
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Give two uses of polymers.
Plastic bags and memory foam
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Why are polymers biodegradeble?
They can't be broken down by microorganisms
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What does poly mean?
Many in Latin
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Give two uses of polymers.
Plastic bags and memory foam
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Why are polymers biodegradeble?
They can't be broken down by microorganisms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the charges of each section of an atom?

Back

Protons=positive, neutrons=no charge and electrons=negative charge

Card 3

Front

If electrons are added or removed from an atom then it becomes what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are elements?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many elements are there?

Back

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