Chemistry - Chem 7: Giant structures

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  • Created by: shcoool
  • Created on: 26-05-15 18:10
What is an allotrope?
a different structural form of the same element
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What are the four allotropes of carbon?
diamond, graphite, graphene and buckminsterfulleren
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Describe the structure of a diamond
giant, connected by strong covalent bonds. Each carbon atom is covalently bonded with four others.
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Describe the properties of diamond
very high melting point, very hard - a lot of energy to break strong bonds, poor conductor of electricity - all valence electrons are incolved in bonding
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Describe the structure of graphite
carbon atoms arranged in a giant structure containing layers of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons. each carbon atom is bonded to three others. one electron from each atom is delocalised
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Describe the properties of carbon
high melting point - strong covalent bonds within the layers, soft - layers have weak van der Waals forces so can slide over one another, can conduct electricity - delocalised electrons can carry a current and are free to move
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What is graphene?
one atom thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons
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What is buckminsterfullerene?
made of spherical molecules containing 60 carbon atoms. Strong covalent bonds between atoms but weak van der Waals forces between molecules. melting point lower that diamond or graphite and is softer than diamond. weaker conductor than graphite
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Summarise the attraction in ionic bonding
strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and negative ions
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Summarise the attraction in covalent bonding
strong electrostatic attraction between a shared pari of electrons and nuclei of the tqo atoms in th ebond
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Summarise the attraction in metallic bonding
strong electrostatic attraction beetween the sea of mobile delocalised outer electrons and the metal cations
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What are van der Waals forces?
Weak forces of attraction between molecules
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Describe properties of a substances that are made of a giant lattice of ions
high melting point (a lot of energy to pull apart ions), brittle, crystalline solids at room temp, poor conductors of electricity as solids due to the ifxed ions
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What happens when ionic compounds are melted or dissolved?
The become good conductors of electricty and can be decomposed by electrolysis
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Describe substances made of molecules
low melting points - weak intermolecular forces but covalent bonds are not broken, poor conductors of electricity as the molecules do not have an overall charge, soft when solid
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Describe the properties of a metal
high melting points (energy to overcome attraction between metal cations and sea of electrons), good conductors of electricity - sea of mobile delocalised outer electrons can move when a potential difference is applied
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Is a metal malleable or hard?
malleable because the layers of metal catiosn can slide over one another and sea of electrons can reform broken bonds
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What are the properties of substances made of giant structures of atoms?
high melting points (a lot of energy for covalent bonds), hard solids, very insoluble, usually poor conductors of electricity
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What is nanoscience?
the study and precise manipulation of structures from 1-100 nanometres rather than at bulk levels
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Give some uses of nanoscience?
silver - socks from smelling, sticky tape - without adhesives, titanium dioxide to catalyse the reaction between idr, oxygen and ultraviolet rays which makes it slef-cleaning
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What are fullerenes?
molecules made of carbon atoms in teh shapes of spheres,ellipsoids ro culinders
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What are possible uses of fullerenes?
medicine, catalysts and photo-voltaic cells
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the four allotropes of carbon?

Back

diamond, graphite, graphene and buckminsterfulleren

Card 3

Front

Describe the structure of a diamond

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the properties of diamond

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the structure of graphite

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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