Chemistry: Chem 1 - Atomic structure and bonding

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  • Created by: shcoool
  • Created on: 24-05-15 13:26
What are substances made of?
atoms
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Define an element
A substance that is made of one type of atom
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Describe the structure of an atom
Have a small central nucleus made of positive particles called protonsand neutral particles called neutrons. Around the nucleus there are the same number of negative electrons as protons. Overall charge is 0.
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WHat is the atomic number?
Number of protons in an atom of an element
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What is the mass number?
The sum of the protons and neutrons
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What defines one element from another?
The number of protons
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What is the conservation of mass?
No mass is lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants
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How are electrons arranged?
In particular energy levels. Always occupy the lowest level.
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What do elements in the same group of the periodic table have in common?
The same number of outer electrons
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What are compounds?
They are substances in which atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined
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What does chemical bonding?
It involves either transferring or sharing electrons from the highest occupied energy levels of atoms in order to gain the electron structure of a noble gas
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What are non-metal and metal compounds made of?
ions
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How does an ionic compound form?
Metals lose electrons to form positive ions and non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions. The electrostatic forces hold them together.
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Describe the structure of an ionic compound
A giant lattice of ions held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions that act in all directions
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In a metal how are the atoms/ions arranged?
In a giant structure. The strong electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and delocalised electrons. These electrons are free to move throughout a structure and come from the highest occupied energy levels of atoms
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What are the properties of ionic compounds?
Regular giant ionic lattices for a structure. HIGH melting points and HIGH boiling points because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds.
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How may the compound conduct electricity?
If it is motel or dissolved in water, it will conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and carry the current.
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How can metals conduct heat and electricity?
The delocalized electrons in their structures that are able to move throughout the metal.
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How can the metals be bent and shaped?
The layers of atoms in metals are able to slide over each other.
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What are alloys?
They are substances made from two or more different metals.
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What makes them different from metals?
They are harder than pure metal because the different sized atoms distort and disrupt the layers so they can't slide over each other as easily.
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Give an example of a shape memory metal
Nitinol can return to its original shape after being deformed. It's used to hold bones in place while they heal.
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Name one use of a metal
Wires as they are good conductors of electricity and are ductile, and for gates as they are strong and malleable.
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What is the relative mass and relative charge of a proton?
1 and +1
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What is the relative mass and relative charge of a neutron?
1 and 0
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What is the relative mass and relative charge of an electron?
Very small and -1
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what can atoms be represented by?
Mass number and atomic number
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Define isotope
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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What is the relative atomic mass?
The average for the isotopes of the element
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What is the relative formula mass?
The total mass number of each element of a compound
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What is a mole?
The relative formula mass in grams of an element
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define an element

Back

A substance that is made of one type of atom

Card 3

Front

Describe the structure of an atom

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

WHat is the atomic number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the mass number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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