Chemistry C4 OCR Gateway

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  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 11-06-13 14:45
Properties of alkali metals (group 1)
low melting/boiling points, low density, soft, very reactive
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which alkali metals burn with which colours
lithium-red. potassium-purple. sodium-orange.
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define oxidation
the gain of oxygen and loss of electrons
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how do group 7 halogens react
by gaining one electron to form a negative ion
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name the group 7 halogens
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, astatine & iodine
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what level of boiling/melting points do halogens have?
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define ionic bonding
transference of electrons
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give an example of ionic bonding
a sodium atom gives an outer electron and becomes a NA+ ion
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define and explain thermal decomposition
transition metal carbonates (copper III carbonate & iron III carbonate etc.) break down with heat into a metal oxide + carbon dioxide (usually resulting in colour change)
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what is the mass number & atomic number of atoms
mass number: number of protons + neutrons. atomic number: number of protons (=electrons)
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define isotope
different forms of the same element which have the same no. of protons but different number of neutrons
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define precipitation
a reaction where two solutions react and an insoluble sold (e.g. sand) forms in the solution
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define and explain covalent bonding
non metal atoms combine to form covalent bonds by sharing electrons, then both atoms have a full outer shell.
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give an example of covalent bonding
hydrogen gas, H2 (two hydrogen (1) atoms sharing electrons)
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what is neutralisation?
the reaction between acids (a substance with a pH of less than 7) and a base (a substance with a pH more than 7). acid + base --> salt + water (H+ + OH- --> H20)
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equation for percentage yield
( actual yield (grams) / predicted yield (grams) ) x100
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what is the haber process
An industrial process for producing ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, using an iron catalyst.
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equation for the haber process
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
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conditions needed for the haber process
200 atmosphere pressure, 450 degrees temperature & and iron catalyst
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equation for calculating % mass of an element in a compound
( Ar x no. of atoms in that element / Mr of the whole compound ) x100`
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5 factors that affect cost of pharmaceutical drugs
1. market research. 2. research & development. 3. trialling. 4. marketing. 5. manufacture
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continuous production is
large scale industrial manufacture of popular chemicals e.g. the haber process for ammonia
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types of water purification
filtration, sedimentation & chlorination
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what is filtration?
a wire mesh screens out large twigs etc. and then gravel & sand beds filter out any other solid bits
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what is sedimentation?
iron or aluminium sulfate i added to the water which makes fine particles clump together and settle at the bottom
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what is chlorination?
chlorine gas is bubbled through to kill harmful bacteria and other microbes
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Card 2


which alkali metals burn with which colours


lithium-red. potassium-purple. sodium-orange.

Card 3


define oxidation


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Card 4


how do group 7 halogens react


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


name the group 7 halogens


Preview of the front of card 5
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