chemistry c3 revision

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what is an endothermic reaction?
takes in energy from surroundings. shown by fall in temperature.
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what is an exothermic reaction?
gives out energy to surroundings. shown by rise in temperature.
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what does an exothermic reaction do to bonds?
releases energy and new bonds are formed.
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what does an endothermic reaction do to bonds?
energy is supplied and bonds are broken.
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what is the formula for energy transfer?
mass of water x shc x temperture change.
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what is the formula for energy given out?
energy released/ mass of fuel burnt.
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how do you measure rate of reaction?
change in mass OR volume of gas given off.
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what theory increases the rate of reaction?
the collision theory.
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how does increase in temp increase rate of reaction?
particles move quicker = more collisions.
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how does increase in concentration increase rate of reaction?
more particles in same volume = collisions more likely.
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how does more surface area increase rate of reaction?
more area to work = frequency of collisions increase.
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how does a catalyst speed up rate of reaction?
gives particles a surface to stick to to collide.
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what is the relative atomic mass?
the bigger number on the periodic table.
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how do you work out relative formula mass?
add up the relative atomic masses of the elements.
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what is the relative formula mass for MgCl2?
95
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what is the relative formula mass for 2LiF?
52
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what is the formula for atom economy?
(total Mr of desired products/ total Mr of all products) x100
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what is atom economy?
tells you how much of the reactants is wasted.
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what does 100% atom economy mean?
all the atoms in the reactants have been used up
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what is the formula for percentage yield?
(actul yield/ predicted yield) x100
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what is percentage yield?
the overall success of an experiment.
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what are the 4 causes of the yield being less than 100%?
evaporation, reversable reactions, filtration and transferring.
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what is batch production?
only operates at certain times. makes drugs in small quantities.
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what is continuous production?
runs all the time. eg. the haber process
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what are the 3 allotropes of carbon?
diamond, graphite and fullerenes.
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what carbon structure is a diamond?
very rigid giant covalent structure.
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what are the properties of a diamond?
lustrous, colourless, hard, strong, doesn't conduct electricity.
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what are the properties of Graphite?
black, opaque, slippery, conducts electricity.
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why is graphite a good lubricant?
its sheets of carbon atoms that rub together and slip.
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Card 2

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what is an exothermic reaction?

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gives out energy to surroundings. shown by rise in temperature.

Card 3

Front

what does an exothermic reaction do to bonds?

Back

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Card 4

Front

what does an endothermic reaction do to bonds?

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Card 5

Front

what is the formula for energy transfer?

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