Chemistry C3

Periodic table, info on particular groups etc: cards 1-22

Info on water: cards 23-38

Info on titration: cards 39-49

Info on energy from reactions: cards 50-56

Info on making ammonia (and equilibrium stuff): cards 57-67

Organic compounds 68-85

Testing for positive ions: cards 86-95

Testing for negative ions: cards 96-101

Hydrogen as a fuel: cards 102 onwards

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By the early 1800s, how many elements had been discovered?
Less than 40
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Why did Newland's arrangement of the periodic table not work?
His law of octaves did not leave out any gaps- metals were mixed up with non-metals, elements were still being discovered, the groups had elements with very different properties
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Who created the periodic more like we know it now?
Dmitri Mendeleev in 1969
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Why was Mendeleev's table better?
He left gaps were he though there could be undiscovered elements which predicted undiscovered elements- in the order of atomic mass too
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After Mendeleev, how did the periodic table go on to change?
Noble gases were discovered as well as electrons and the atomic structure. There were also some inaccuracies solved by placing in order of atomic number and the modern periodic table has groups and periods
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Where are the transition metals found?
In the centre of the table
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What are the characteristics of the group 1 elements?
Low density, form ionic compounds, react with water to release hydrogen, form hydroxides that dissolve in water to give alkaline solutions
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The further you go down group 1, what happens to reactivity?
It increases, the melting and boiling point also gets lower
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what sort of bonds do group one elements form?
Plus 1, ionic
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What are the group 1 elements known as?
Alkali metals
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Compared to group 1 metals, what are the characteristics of transition metals?
Higher melting and boiling points, harder and stronger, much less reactive- including water and oxygen
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What are the common characteristics of transition elements?
They form elements with different charges, form coloured compounds and are useful as catalysts
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Give an example of where a catalyst is used:
Iron for Haber Process and Nickel for forming margerine
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What are the characteristics of the halogens
Poor conductors, poisonous, coloured vapours, react with metals to form ionic compounds
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What different vapours do the halogens produce?
Fluorine-Yellow Chlorine-Green Bromine-Orange Iodine-Purple
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What ions will a halogen form
-1 ionic- called a halide
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How does reactivity change the further you go down group 7?
The reactivity reduces and the boiling and melting points get higher
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What would happen when chlorine reacts with potassium bromide?
Potassium chloride would form as well as bromine due to a displacement reaction
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What would happen when bromine reacts with potassium iodide?
Nothing as iodine is more reactive than bromine so a displacement reaction would not occur
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What is a diatomic molecule?
When elements exist as pairs of atoms within the molecule
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Why do the elements in group 1 get more reactive as you go down?
Shielding, the electrons on the outer shell are further away so the attraction to the nucleus is less
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The higher the energy level of the outer electrons.....
The more easily the electrons are lost and the less easily the electrons are lost
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What is hard water?
Water containing dissolved calcium or magnesium compounds
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What are the disadvantages of hard water?
Scum is produced meaning more soap has to be used, also scale can form
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What is scum?
The sodium stearate in soap, reacts with the calcium or magnesium ions to form calcium or magnesium stearate which is an insoluble precipitate
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What is scale?
The temporary hard water contains hydrogencarbonate which thermally decomposes into a carbonate which reacts with the calcium ions to form calcium carbonate which is an insoluble solid
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What are the advantages of hard water?
Some claim it tastes good, there are links into reduced chances of heart disease and it is good for healthy teeth and bones
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How can temporary hard water be softened?
By heating
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How can permanent hard water be softened?
Add washing soda or use a ion exchange column
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How does washing soda soften water?
The calcium reacts with the carbonate to form calcium carbonate which is an insoluble solid and sodium which remains dissolved
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How does an ion exchange column work?
The resins contain sodium or hydrogen ions, and these ions are exchanged with the calcium and magnesium ions
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How can the resin be replenished?
Adding sodium chloride
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What are the different stages for cleaning water?
Storing in a reservoir- Using screens which remove large rubbish, Using a settlement tank so sand can fall to the bottom, Using aluminium sulfate can help dirt clump and settle, then a fine sand filter stops remaining insoluble solids getting through
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What is added to water to kill bacteria?
Chlorine
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What is known as coagulation or flocculation?
Adding aluminium sulfate
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of adding fluorine?
A-Hardens teeth and reduces cavities and is only in very small amounts D-links to learning difficulties and is unethical
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What filters are used in people's homes?
Sometimes it removes chlorine, pesticides and other chemicals using carbon, there is silver to discourage bacteria build up, an ion exchange resin softens the water
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How do we purify water completely?
We produce distilled water by evaporating the water at 100 degrees then pass it through cool water so it condenses
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What method can we use to find the concentration of either an acid or an alkali?
Titration
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Where does the acid/alkali go of an unknown concentration?
In the burette
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What is the burette?
A glass tube with readings and tap at the bottom
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Where does the acid/alkali go of a known concentration?
In the conical flask below the burette
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What types of indicators are used?
NOT UNIVERSAL INDICATOR AS IT IS TOO GRADUAL, ones such as methyl orange or phenylpthalein
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What do we use to measure out the volume of acid/alkali?
A pippette
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What is the meniscus?
A curved top surface of water- we measure the bottom section
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What is a decimetre cubed?
A unit for volume which equals 1000cm cubed (1 litre)
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What is the unit for concentration?
Moles per decimetre cubed
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What are moles
Mass/Mr and the mass in grams of one mole of a substance is its relative formula mass in grams
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How do we work out the mole knowing the volume and concentration
Volume x Concentration
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In a reaction, what is energy needed for?
To break bonds
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When is energy released?
When bonds are made
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What is a catalyst?
Speeds up a chemical reaction and is reusable- it creates a different pathway with a different activation energy
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What is an exothermic reaction?
The energy released from forming new bonds is greater than the energy needed to break bonds
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What is calorimetry?
Involves burning a substance/fuel and measure the amount of energy that is released by heating water
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Why is calorimetry not efficient?
Lots of the heat energy is lost to the surroundings, not all the food/fuel burns, water should be stirred and some of the energy heats the container
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What equation can we use to find the energy released?
Energy released = mass of water x specific heat capacity of water x rise in temperature
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What is the process of making ammonia called?
The Haber Process
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What catalyst is used in making ammonia?
Iron
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What pressure is used to make ammonia?
200atm
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What temperature is ammonia made at?
450degrees
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What is used to make ammonia?
Hydrogen from methane and nitrogen from the air
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What does it mean if a reaction is in equilibrium?
Reactions occur at the same rate in each direction
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Why would you increase the pressure to make more product?
An increase in pressure favours the direction of reaction that produces the least number of molecules
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In which way, for the reaction producing ammonia, is the reaction exothermic?
Forward
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What would a good answer include about the Haber Process?
How temperature and pressure effect the yield, and an explanation about how the conditions are a compromise between yields, rates and costs
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What is ammonia used for?
Fertiliser
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Why does the unused hydrogen and nitrogen get reused?
The reaction is reversible
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What are organic compounds?
Basis of all living things that contains carbon
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What are alcohols used for?
Drinking alcoholic drinks; solvents for ink, aftershave or perfume; fuels such as bio fuel made by fermentation or ethene and steam
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Give three examples of alcohols?
Methanol, ethanol and proponal
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What is the functional group of alcohols?
OH
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What is a group of the same type of organic compounds containing the same functional group?
Homologous series
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Give some characteristics and behaviours of alcohols:
Dissolve in water to form a neutral solution, reacts with sodium to produce hydrogen and it burns in air
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When burnt in air, what do alcohols produce?
Carbon dioxide and water
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What happens to ethanol when oxidised?
It forms ethanoic acid- the main acid found in vinegar- by chemicals (oxidising agents) or by the action of microbes
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What is the functional group for carboxylic acids?
COOH
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Give three examples of carboxylic acids:
Methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid
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What are the characteristics of carboxylic acids?
They dissolve in water to form acidic solutions, they react with carbonates to form carbon dioxide and react with alcohols to form esters, they do not ionise completely with water (weak acids)
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What makes a stronger acid?
How much the acid ionises into H+ ions
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Why are carboxylic acids weaker acids?
They are reversible reaction meaning only some of it ionises meaning there is a lower concentration of H+ ions
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What is the functional group of an ester?
-COO-
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How are esters made?
Reacting carboxylic acids with acids
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What can esters be used for?
Perfumes and sweets as they are scented, flavourful and volatile
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Give an example of an ester/
Ethyl Ethanoate
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For a flame test, why does the loop have to placed in hydrochloric acid and heated?
To make sure there are no other substances
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What colour flame appears with lithium?
Crimson
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What colour flame appears with barium?
Green
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What colour flame appears with calcium?
Red
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What colour flame appears with sodium?
Yellow
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What colour flame appears with potassium?
Lilac
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How do we test for positive ions?
The flame test or adding sodium hydroxide
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After adding sodium hydroxide, what does it mean if the precipitate is white?
If it dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide it dissolves it is Al3+, if it doesn't and burns with red flame it is calcium or if it doesn't it is magnesium
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After adding sodium hydroxide, what does it mean if the precipitate is brown?
Iron(iii)
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After adding sodium hydroxide, what does it mean if the precipitate is green?
Iron(ii)
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After adding sodium hydroxide, what does it mean if the precipitate is blue?
Copper
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How do we test for carbonates?
Add dilute acid (nitric acid, HCl or sulfuric acid) if it fizzes and the gas turns lime-water turns cloudy it means the test is positive
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How do we test for halides?
Add dilute nitric acid, then silver nitrate which forms a precipitate.
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What colour precipitate does a chloride ion form when added to silver nitrate?
White
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What colour precipitate does a bromide ion form when added to silver nitrate?
Cream
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What colour precipitate does a iodide ion form when added to silver nitrate?
Yellow
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How do we test for sulfates?
Dilute HCl is added, then barium chloride if a white precipitate is formed sulfates are in the solution
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What are the disadvantages of using current fuels? i.e. petrol, diesel and ethanol?
Smog, products contribute to acid rain, the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide is also produced
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What does hydrogen produce as a waste product when used for fuel?
Water only
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What are the disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel?
Its expensive to make, difficult to provide the hydrogen to cars and there are issues for safety as it is very flammable
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How can hydrogen be used in cars?
In the combustion engines where it has to be stored in tanks in high pressure as a liquid, or as fuel cells which is a chemical reaction which produces electricity, heat and water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why did Newland's arrangement of the periodic table not work?

Back

His law of octaves did not leave out any gaps- metals were mixed up with non-metals, elements were still being discovered, the groups had elements with very different properties

Card 3

Front

Who created the periodic more like we know it now?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why was Mendeleev's table better?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

After Mendeleev, how did the periodic table go on to change?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Ahmed74

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slide 22 is wrong

Dominic Langer

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Dmitri Mendeleev proposed his version of the Periodic Table in 1869, not 1969 as written.

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