Chemistry C2

  • Created by: Faolan
  • Created on: 06-06-15 19:45
What is the reactivity series of metals
Potassium Sodium Lithium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Zinc Iron Tin Lead Copper Silver Gold
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How do he elements react to water
Potassium- Violently Sodium- Very quickly Lithium- Quickly Calcium- More slowly
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How do metals react with water
Metal + Water → Metal hydroxide + Hydrogen. Observations: Floats, moves rapidly on the surface, bubbles of gas given off, dissolves/disappears, exothermic
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Who does metals react with oxygen
Metal + Oxygen → Metal Oxide. K - lilac flame Na- yellow flame Ca – brick-red flame Mg –bright white light forming a white ash Al, Zn – white powder formed Fe – Black solid formed
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What is Oxidation reaction
They involve the addition of oxygen.
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What is a Displacement Reaction
Are reactions where a MORE reactive metal replaces a LESS reactive metal from its compound. Displacement reactions are the best way to work out a Reactivity Series.
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How are metals extracted form their compound
• K to Al are extracted from ore by Electrolysis • Zn to Pb are extracted from ore by Reduction with Carbon or Carbon monoxide • Cu to Au are usually found uncombined in nature, but when in compound form can be extracted using Hydrogen.
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What is a reduction reaction
Reduction is the loss of oxygen. A reducing agent carries out reduction by accepting the oxygen; i.e. it is oxidized. Example: Reduction of Iron oxide by carbon monoxide Iron oxide + Carbon monoxide → Iron + Carbon dioxide
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What is The extraction of Iron in the Blast Furnace
The main ore in iron is an oxide known as haematite, Fe2O3 Iron (III) oxide. The raw materials: • haematite (Fe2O3) • coke (C) • limestone (CaCO3) are fed into the top of the furnace. • Hot Air is blasted in from the bottom
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Who is the reducing agent formed
Hot air is blasted into the furnace from the bottom. Oxygen from the air reacts with coke to carbon dioxide. C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) The carbon dioxide reacts with more hot coke to make carbon monoxide gas. CO2(g) + C(s)→ 2CO(g)
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Who is the iron ore reduced
Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) → 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g) The iron formed is molten and sinks to the bottom of the furnace. It is then run off into moulds (cast iron).
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How are the impurities removed
The impurities in the iron ore are removed by the limestone to form a molten ****. The limestone breaks down to form carbon dioxide. This reacts with the sand to form **** (calcium silicate. This **** floats on top of the molten iron and is tapped o
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What is the equation for rust
Hydrated iron (III) oxide Fe2O3.xH2O
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When does rusting occur
When Iron is exposed to oxygen and moisture (water in the air)
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What is a redox reaction
Involve Reduction and Oxidation reactions occurring at the same time (simultaneously).
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What is Oxidation and Reduction
Oxidation is Gain of Oxygen Loss of Hydrogen Loss of electrons Reduction is theLoss of Oxygen and Gain of Hydrogen and Gain of electrons
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What is a common Oxidation reaction
Combustion- C + O2 →CO2 Rusting-4Fe + 3O2 + 2xH2O → 2Fe2O3.xH2O
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What is a common reduction reaction
Reduction of copper(II) oxide -CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O
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What is Hard Water
Does not produce a lather readily with soap. It Contains Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ ions. It Reacts with soap to form scum (Calcium Stearate or Magnesium Stearate) It Will lather with detergent
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What is Soft Water
It lathers easily with soap. It Contains Na+/ and/or K+ ions
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What is Temporary hardness
Can be removed by boiling . Contains Ca2+ /Mg2+ and HCO3 it Forms limescale (CaCO3). Formed when CO2 dissolves in rainwater forming carbonic acid which falls on limestone:
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What is Permanent Hardness
Cannot be removed by boiling. Contains Ca2+/Mg2+ and SO42- Softening by adding washing soda: Na2CO3 +Ca(HCO3)2 → 2NaHCO3 +CaCO3. This is a precipitation reaction. A precipitation reaction.
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How to test for hardness
1.Add a known volume of soap solution to the water sample 2. Shake well 3. Record observations - if lather then SOFT water – if scum forms or no immediate lather then it is HARD water
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How to To distinguish between Temporary Harness and Permanent Hardness
1. Boil sample of known hard water 2. Add known volume of soap solution 3. Shake 4. Record observations – if lather forms then Temporary hard water, – if no lather forms then Permanent hard water
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What are the advantages of hard water
• Hard water tastes better • It is better for brewing beer • It is good for tanning leather • It provides Ca2+ for healthy bones and teeth
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What are the disadvantages of hard water
• Produces scum which wastes soap • Produces ‘fur’ or limescale in kettles and hot water pipes so appliances are less efficient and need replaced more often • Dishwasher salt needed to soften water, adding to the cost.
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What is relative atomic mass
RAM is the mass of an atom compared with that of the Carbon-12 isotope which has a mass of exactly 12. It is a weighted average. It is the mass of one mole of that element.
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What is Relative formula mass
RFM is the sum of the RAMS of all the atoms present. It is the mass of one mole of that substance. Units are gmol-1
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What does the mole of a substance contain
6x1023 particles which is known as Avogadro’s Number
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What is the equation for moles in solids
= Mass for SOLIDS/RFM
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What is the equation for a mole of a liquid
Volume x Concentration for LIQUIDS
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Who can a rate of reaction be measured
The rate of a reaction can be measured by the rate at which a reactant is used up, or the rate at which a product is formed.
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What are factors effecting rates of a reaction
The temperature, concentration, pressure of reacting gases, surface area of reacting solids, and the use of catalysts
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Who methods are used to measure rates of reaction
volume of gas produced , weight of reactants (if a gas is given off) change in colour (using a colorimeter) Overall rate = 1 /Time taken
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What can chemical reactions be classed as
Exothermic – Give OUT heat energy
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What are examples of exothermic reactions
1. Neutralisation 2. Combustion 3. Displacement Reactions 4. Dissolving 5. Hydration 6. Rusting
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What is an endothermic reaction
Take IN heat energy
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What are the different types of endothermic reaction
1. Thermal Decomposition 2. Photosynthesis 3. Dissolving 4. Electrolysis
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What is the overall energy change
Is a balance of the energy taken IN when bonds BREAK and the energy RELEASED when bonds FORM
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What is thermal decomposition
Is breaking a substance down using HEAT and is therefore ENDOTHERMIC.
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What are the Advantages of Quarrying
•Provides employment • Provides landfill sites • Puts money into the local economy •Provides better transport links
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What are the disadvantages of quarrying
•An eyesore • Noise pollution • Dust pollution • Destroys habitats
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What are the tests for some non metals
Hydrogen- Lighted splint goes POP. Oxygen – relights a glowing splint Carbon dioxide – limewater (calcium hydroxide) turns from colourless to milky. Water – anhydrous copper(II) sulfate turns from white to blue
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How would you describe Carbon and Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a colourless odourless gas. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide (limewater). Cloudy limewater changes to colourless again with excess carbon dioxide
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Who does Carbon Dioxide contribute to Global warming
Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming to due the ‘Greenhouse effect’ where carbon dioxide absorbs heat energy, preventing it escaping from the earth, which warms the planet, melts ice-caps and causes sea l
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What are the uses of Carbon Dioxide
Fire extinguishers As it is denser than air, so covers the burning fuel, preventing the fuel from getting oxygen which is needed for burning. Making carbonated drinks As it has a low solubility in water. It will also give the drink an acidic taste.
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Who would you describe Nitrogen
A colourless odourless gas (N2). Unreactive gas as it contains a TRIPLE covalent bond which requires a LOT of energy to break before the atoms can react.
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What are the uses of Nitrogen
Liquid Nitrogen is used as coolant In food packaging to keep food fresh. In the manufacture of ammonia (Haber process). Manufacture of fertilisers. Production of nitric acid. Manufacture of nylon
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Describe Oxygen
A colourless odourless gas (O2). Uses Breathing apparatus Steel Making Welding Rocket engines
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Describe Sulfur
Brittle yellow solid. Combustion when S impurities in fossil fuels are burnt S + O2 → SO2 SO2 reacts with water to form ACID RAIN . H2O + SO2 → H2SO3 (sulfurous acid)
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What are the effects of Acid Rain
Corrosion of Limestone. Death of fish in rivers and lakes. Defoliating trees (Deforestation). Prevention- Burn less fossil fuels. Remove sulfur from fuels before burning
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What are fossil fuels
They are NON-RENEWABLE - cannot be easily replaced. Fossil fuels all contain Carbon. Fossil fuel + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
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What are Hydrocarbons
Contain Carbon and Hydrogen atoms only. Crude Oil is a mixture of Hydrocarbons separated using ‘Fractional Distillation’.
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What is Fractional Distillation
‘Fractional Distillation’ separates the hydrocarbons into groups called fractions, which have a similar number of Carbon atoms, and similar boiling points. Crude Oil is heated and the vapours fed into a fractionating tower.
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What is Fractional Distillation Part 2
Hydrocarbons with the lowest boiling points, will rise to the top, condense and be collected. The larger hydrocarbons with the highest boiling points will condense lower down the tower. Most of the fractions are used as fuels, Petrol Kerosene, Diesel
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What are the Environmental implications of oil spillages
Many birds are poisoned by crude oil as a result of an oil spill. They also die of the cold because their feathers stick together and they are unable to fly or insulate themselves.
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What is a Homoglous series
Such as alcohols differs by a CH2 unit and shows a graduation in physical properties
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What are Alkanes
Alkanes do not have a functional group, which makes them less reactive organic molecules. • They are saturated as they contain single C-C bonds (no C=C double bonds). • They contain C-H bonds which are very strong and difficult to break.
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What are examples of Alkanes
CH4 - Methane C2H6 - Ethane C3H8 - Propane C4H10 - Butane C5H12 - Pentane
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Combustion in alkanes
Due to the strong C-H bonds in alkanes, they release a lot of heat energy when burnt and so are a good source of fuel. They burn with a BLUE flame.
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What are Alkenes
Alkenes have the functional group C=C (double bond). C2H4 - Ethene C3H6 - Propene C4H8- Butene C5H10 - Pentene
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Who are Alkenes made
• Alkenes are made from alkanes by cracking at HIGH temperatures (>800°C) using a Zeolite catalyst (containing Al, Si, O) Alkane → Alkene + Alkane
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