Chemistry C1.1

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  • Created by: Harriet
  • Created on: 23-03-14 12:13
What are all materials made up of?
Atoms
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What is an element?
It is a substance that is only made up of 1 type of atom.
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What are compounds? And how do they occur?
They are substances that are made up of two or more types of atom. The bond between the atoms happens through chemical reactions.
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Describe the structure of an atom. Which particles are charged in an atom?
They have a central nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons. Outside the nucleus there are electrons. Protons and electrons are charged but neutrons are not.
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What differentiates what element an atom is?
All atoms of the same element have the same amount of protons. If they have a different amount of protons then it is a different element.
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What causes an atom to have no charge?
When an atom has no overall charge it has the same amount of protons to electrons.
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When metals and non-metals react, what happens to the electrons?
The metals give up electrons and non-metals take them.
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How are compounds formed?
Positive and negative ions are attracted to each other. When metals lose electrons, they become positive ions and when non-metals gain ions, they become negative ions.
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What is the chemical bond between metals and non-metals called?
An ionic bond
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How are molecules formed?
When non-metals combine, the atoms share electrons and form molecules.
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What are covalent bonds?
When atoms share electrons to form molecules, strong chemical bonds are formed called covalent bonds.
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What does conserving atoms mean?
When chemicals react, the atoms rearrange themselves and therefore, no atoms are gained or lost. The amount of atoms is always the same at both ends of the reaction.
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Balance the equation- H2 + O2--> H2O
2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
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What is conservation of mass?
During a chemical reaction, you always end up with the same mass as you started with.
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Explain energy levels or electron shells.
The electrons move round the nucleus in an 'electron cloud' which is what gives the atom its shape.The electrons can only fit into certain 'zones'. The zones are called electron shells.
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What is the electronic structure of an atom?
The way the electrons are arranged on the levels or shells. If you know how many electrons in an atom, you can work out its electronic stucture.
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How does the periodic table work?
The elements in the same vertical column have similar properties. The group number tells you how many electrons are in the highest level.
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What does the atomic number measure? What is the mass number?
The amount of protons in an atom of that element, which is the same as the number of electrons. If you add the protons and the neutrons up you get the mass number.
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Describe the properties of group 1 elements.
All of the elements are very reactive because they only have 1 electron in their outer shell so they can easily lose an electron to a positive ion when they react. They all react very strongly with oxygen and water.
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Why are Group 0 or Group 8 gases unreactive?
Because except from helium they all contain 8 electrons in their outer shell which is stable and makes them unreactive.
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How is unreactive argon gas used in old style light bulbs?
In air the thin filament of tungsten metal that is heated, would quickly react and burn out so by putting it in a unreactive gas it lasts for much longer.
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How do brightly coloured lights work?
They work like normal light bulbs by heating a thin filament of tungstem metal but instead of putting argon gas, they use neon as when electricity is passed through, it glows red-orange.
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When were noble gases first noticed?
In 1892, they discovered that there is only 1% of truly unreactive gas in the air.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an element?

Back

It is a substance that is only made up of 1 type of atom.

Card 3

Front

What are compounds? And how do they occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the structure of an atom. Which particles are charged in an atom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What differentiates what element an atom is?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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