chemistry - Basic concepts and hydrocarbons

Straight from the ocr tectbook and specification for all of module one... everything you need to know!

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  • Created on: 30-05-14 18:15
What is a hydrocarbon?
organic compound that contain hydrogen and carbon only
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What is a saturated hydrocarbon?
a hydrocarbon with single bonds only
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What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
a hydrocarbon containing carbon to carbon multiple bonds
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what is an aliphatic hydrocarbon?
a hydrocarbon joined together in straight or branched chains
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what is an alicyclic hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon with carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
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What is a functional group?
Part of the organic molecule responsible for it's chemical reactions
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what is a homologous series?
a series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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What is the general formula for an alkane?
CnH2n+2
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What are structural Isomers?
atoms with the same molecular formula but a different arrangement of atoms
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What are sterioisomers?
atoms with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of atoms in space
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What is E/Z isomerism?
A type of sterioisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon in the carbon-carbon double bond may be arranged differently in space because of restricted rotation of the double bond
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What is Cis-Trans isomerism?
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which there is a non-hydrogen group and a hydrogen group on each carbon in the carbon-carbon double bond. Cis has hydrogen atoms on the same side yet trans has hydrogen atoms on opposite sides
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What is homolytic fission?
The breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom forming two radicals.
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What is a radical?
a species with an unpaired electron
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What is heterolytic fission?
The breaking of a covalant bond, with both electrons gong to one of the bonded atoms forming a cation and an anion.
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What is a nucleophile?
an electron donor
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What is an electrophile?
A proton acceptor
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What is an addition reaction?
A reaction in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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What is a substitution reaction?
A reaction in which and atom or group of atoms is replaced by a different tom or group of atoms
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What is an elimination reaction?
the removal of of a molecule from a saturated molecule to for an unsaturated molecule
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what is fractional distillation?
the seperation of components in a liquid mixture into fractions, which differ in boiling point
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Explain the resulting products left in a fractioning column (include where in column and type of hydrocarbon)
Short chain with low BP's condense at top of column, Long chain with high BP's condense near bottom, Gases that do not condense pass out top as petroleum gas, Bitumen passes out of the bottom.
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explain how chain length effects boiling points of hydrocarbons
As chain length increases, vanderwaals get stronger, as there is increased surface contact, more energy is needed to separate molecules so boiling point increases
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What is the effect of branching on boiling points of hydrocarbons?
As branching increases, there are less vanderwaal forces, as there is less surface contact, less energy is needed to separate molecules so boiling point decreases.
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Name two important uses of short chain hydrocarbons
Used as fuels and used for polymer production
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Name the products of complete combustion
CO2 and H2O
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What are the products of incomplete combustion?
CO and H20
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How is carbon monoxide produced and what are the dangers of it?
CO is a product of incomplete combustion when insufficient O2 is present. Co is poisnous
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Give a use of methane, LPG and Octane
Methane - Domestic heaters, LPG - Portable cookers, Octane - Petrol
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What is cracking?
Breaking down of long chain saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of short chain alkanes and alkenes
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What are the required conditions when cracking hydrocarbons?
A catalyst present, temp - 450degrees
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Name the process used to produce branched alkanes
Isomerisation
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Name the process by which aliphatic Hydrocarbons are converted to cyclic hydrocarbons (name any by products)
Reforming - hydrogen is produced as a by-product
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What are the advantages of converting straight chain alkanes into cyclic and branched alkanes.
Higher octane rating, more efficient combustion, and hydrogen produced when reforming is used in the harbour process.
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Give a use of bitumen
Road surfacing
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Explain the uses of crude oil
Fractions obtained from crude oil are used as fuels or processed to make petrochemicals.
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Give the negative effect of the following pollutant, CO, CO2, NO3, SO2
CO - poisonous to humans, CO2 - leads to global warming, NO3 and SO2 contribute to acid rain.
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What are the disadvantages of using crude oil as a fuel?
It produces pollutants, we are over reliant on it as a source of fuel, it is non-renewable
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Why is production of fuel from cane sugar a long term interest?
crude oil is non renewable but ethanol is renewable as it is produced from cane sugar
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Why can ethanol be regarded as renewable and non-renewable?
Ethanol can be produced from the hydration of ethane which come from the non-renewable source crude oil, however ethanol can be made from fermentation from the renewable resource cane sugar
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what is radical substitution?
a type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces and atom or group of atoms
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What are the three steps in free radical substituition?
initiation, propagation and termination
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What is a mechanism
a sequence of steps showing the path taken by electrons in a reaction
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What is initiation
The first step in free radical subtitution in which free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radition
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what is propagation?
Two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up products in a chain reaction
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what is termination?
the final step in free radical substitution when radicals combine to form molecules.
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In the free radical substitution of clorine and methane what are he possible final products?
CL2, CH3CL, C2H6
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Name the type of reactions that can result in a number of products in free radical substituition
Multiple substitution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a saturated hydrocarbon?

Back

a hydrocarbon with single bonds only

Card 3

Front

What is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is an aliphatic hydrocarbon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is an alicyclic hydrocarbon

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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