Chemistry - Atoms

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  • Created by: Qian Ru
  • Created on: 06-09-13 03:05
What is an element?
An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
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What is an atom?
An atom is the smallest particle of an element. It is the smallest particle of matter.
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What are the sub-atomic particles?
Protons, neutrons and electrons.
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How is element related to atoms?
Each element consists of the same type of atoms and atoms of the same element have the same size and mass.
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What is the mass of an atom dependent on?
Proton and neutrons.
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Why are atoms electrically neutral?
The number of positively-charged protons is the same as the number of negatively-charged electrons, so the overall charge of an atom is 0, which makes it electrically-neutral.
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What is the mass number?
The mass number, also known as the nucleon number, is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.
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What is the atomic number?
The atomic number, also known as the proton number, is the number of protons in an atom./ The number of protons is also the same as the number of electrons as an atom is electrically neutral.
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What is the electronic configuration?
It is the way the electrons are arranged around the nucleus of an atom.
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What are the 2 types of electronic structures and their differences?
The full electronic structure is the drawing of the atom. The simplified electronic structure is the written version. The number of electrons on every shell will be written down, separated by a dot.
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What is the charge of the nucleus of an atom and why?
Positive. As the nucleus only contains positively-charged protons and neutral neutrons, the charge of the nucleus is positive.
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What are valence electrons?
Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell.
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How is the valence shell related to the group number of the element?
The number of valence shell corresponds to the group number of the element.
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What do the valence electrons do?
The valence electrons are the electrons of an atom that take part in chemical reactions.
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Trend in period
A horizontal period in the Periodic Table contains elements with the same number of electron shells.
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Trend in group
A vertical group in the Periodic Table contains elements with the same number of valence electrons.
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What are isotopes?
They are atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons.
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Then why in the periodic table is only one type of isotope?
The isotope in the Periodic Table is the most of that particular element.
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What is the atomic radius?
It is half of the atom's diameter.
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How is atomic radius related to the group number in the Periodic Table?
Atomic radius increases down the group due to additional electron shells.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an atom?

Back

An atom is the smallest particle of an element. It is the smallest particle of matter.

Card 3

Front

What are the sub-atomic particles?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is element related to atoms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the mass of an atom dependent on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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