Chemistry AQA Unit 1: Foundation (4)

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Fractions that are produced by the distillation of crude oil can go through a process called?
Fractions that are produced by the distillation of crude oil can go through a process called cracking.
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Define cracking:
A chemical reaction which produces smaller hydrocarbons, including alkanes and alkenes.
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Ethene and other alkenes are...? (complete sentence)
Ethene and other alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons and can be used to make polymers.
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Fuels made from oil mixtures containing...? (complete sentence)
Fuels made from oil mixtures containing large hydrocarbon molecules are not efficient.
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(continue with card 4) they do not ...? (complete sentence)
They do not flow easily and are difficult to ignite.
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Crude oil often contains...?
Crude oil often contains too many large hydrocarbon molecules and not enough small hydrocarbon molecules to meet demand. That's when cracking comes in.
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Cracking allows...? (complete sentence)
Cracking allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules.
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Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are?
Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are heated to vaporise them.
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(continue with card 8) They are then either:
Passed over a hot catalyst, or mixed with steam and heated to a very high temperature.
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Cracking produces what?
Cracking produces smaller alkanes and alkenes (another type of hydrocarbon).
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The alkenes are used to make?
The alkenes are used to make polymers.
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Some of the smaller hydrocarbons formed by cracking are used as?
Some of the smaller hydrocarbons formed by cracking are used as fuels.
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Define alkenes:
The alkenes are a family of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula: CnH2n
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Are alkenes saturated or unsatured hydrocarbons?
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
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What do alkenes contain?
They contain a double covalent bond, which is shown as two lines between two of the carbon atoms.
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Polymers can be difficult to?
Polymers can be difficult to dispose of.
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Alkenes can be used to make?
Alkenes can be used to make poylmers.
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Define polymers:
Polymers are very large molecules made when many smaller molecules join together, end-to-end.
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What are the small molecules called?
The small molecules are called monomers.
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*Fact about alkenes*
Alkenes can act as monomers because they are unsaturated (they have a double bond)
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Ethene can polymerise to form?
thene can polymerise to form poly(ethene), also called polythene.
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Propene can polymerise to form?
ropene can polymerise to form poly(propene), also called polypropylene.
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Polythene are typically used for?
plastic bags and bottles
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Polypropene are typically used for?
crates and ropes
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Polychloroethene are typically used for?
water pipes and insulation on electricity cables
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LDPE stands for?
LDPE, low-density poly(ethene).
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HDPE stands for?
HDPE, high-density poly(ethene)
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LDPE is weaker or stronger than HDPE?
LDPE is weaker than HDPE and becomes softer at lower temperatures.
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Modern polymers have many uses, including:
New packaging materials,fillings for teeth,dressings for cuts and hydrogels.
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Are polymers reactive or unreactive?
Poylmers are unreactive , so they are suitable for storing food and chemicals safely.
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What is ethanol?
Ethanol is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks such as wine and beer. It's also useful as a fuel.
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(continue with card 31) Used for:
For use in cars and other vehicles, it is usually mixed with petrol.
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Making ethanol:
Ethene + steam → ethanol
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Sugar from plant material is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide? (complete sentence)
Sugar from plant material is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide by fermentation.
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What is one of the advantages of making ethanol by fermentation?
One of the advantages of making ethanol by fermentation is the raw material is a renewable resource.
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Why can polymers be difficult to dispose of?
Polymers can be difficult to dispose of because they do not break down easily.
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Is Ethene a polymer or monomer?
Ethene is a monomer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define cracking:

Back

A chemical reaction which produces smaller hydrocarbons, including alkanes and alkenes.

Card 3

Front

Ethene and other alkenes are...? (complete sentence)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Fuels made from oil mixtures containing...? (complete sentence)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

(continue with card 4) they do not ...? (complete sentence)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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