Chemistry AQA Unit 1: Foundation (3)

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What is crude oil?
Crude oil is a mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons.
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What do hydrocarbons contain?
They contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only, joined together by chemical bonds called covalent bonds.
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There are different types of hydrocarbons but the most one is?
But most of the ones in crude oil are alkanes.
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The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons that share...? (complete sentence)
The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula. This is: CnH2n+2
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The general formula means?
The general formula means that the number of hydrogen atoms in an alkane is double the number of carbon atoms, plus two.
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What's methanes molecular formula?
CH4
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What's ethane molecular formula?
C2H6
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What's propane molecular formula?
C3H8
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Alkanes are unsaturated or saturated?
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
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(continues with card 9) What does it mean?
This means that their carbon atoms are joined to each other by single bonds. This makes them relatively unreactive, apart from burning or combustion, which is their reaction with oxygen in the air.
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What is distillation?
Distillation is a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids.
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It works when...? (complete sentence)
It works when the liquids have different boiling points.
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What is distillation commonly used to?
Distillation is commonly used to separate ethanol (the alcohol in alcoholic drinks) from water.
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The sequence of events in distillation:
Heating → evaporating → cooling → condensing
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What does fraction distillation do?
Fractional distillation is different from distillation in that it separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions.
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Substances with high boiling points...? (complete sentence)
Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom.
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Substances with lower boiling points...? (complete sentence)
Substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top.
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As you go up the fractionating column, the hydrocarbons have:
Lower boiling points, lower viscosity and higher flammibility.
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As you go down the fractionating column, the hydrocarbons have:
Higher boiling points, very volatile, and flows easily.
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Hydrocarbons with small molecules make...? (complete sentence)
Hydrocarbons with small molecules make better fuels than hydrocarbons with large molecules.
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The most viscous hydrocarbons are likely to leave the fractionating column at:
The bottom
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What do we call the compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms?
The compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms are called hydrocarbons.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do hydrocarbons contain?

Back

They contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only, joined together by chemical bonds called covalent bonds.

Card 3

Front

There are different types of hydrocarbons but the most one is?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons that share...? (complete sentence)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The general formula means?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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