Chemistry AQA Unit 1: Foundation (2)

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*Fact about ores*
Ores are naturally occurring rocks that contain metal or metal compounds in sufficient amounts to make it worthwhile extracting them.
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Most everyday metals are mixtures called
Most everyday metals are mixtures called alloys.
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The Earth's crust contains?
The Earth's crust contains metals and metal compounds such as gold, iron oxide and aluminium oxide, but when found in the Earth these are often mixed with other substances.
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A metal ore is?
A metal ore is a rock containing a metal, or a metal compound, in high enough concentration to make it economic to extract the metal.
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Ores need to be...? (complete sentence)
Need to be concentrated before the metal is extracted and purified.
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Metals are produced...? (complete sentence)
Metals are produced when metal oxides are reduced (have their oxygen removed).
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potassium ,sodium, calcium, magnesium, and aluminium
They extract by electrolysis.
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zinc, iron, tin and lead
They extract by reaction with carbon or carbon monoxide.
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copper, silver ,gold, and platinum
They extracted in various ways.
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*Fact about gold*
Gold, because it is so unreactive, is found as the native metal and not as a compound. It does not need to be chemically extracted from its ore, but chemical reactions may be needed to remove other elements that might contaminate the metal.
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The transition metals are placed in the?
The transition metals are placed in the periodic table in a large block between groups 2 and 3.
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The transition metals have these properties in common:
they are metals and they are good conductors of heat and electricity and they can be hammered or bent into shape easily
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Transition metals are useful for?
Transition metals are useful for construction materials and making objects that need to let electricity or heat travel through them easily.
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Iron is extracted from?
Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace.
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Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called?
Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called reduction reactions.
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Carbon is more reactive than...?
Carbon is more reactive than iron, so it can push out or displace the iron from iron oxide.
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(continue with card 16) FOR EXAMPLE:
Here are the equations for the reaction: iron oxide + carbon → iron + carbon dioxide
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In the blast furnace, it is so hot that...? (complete sentence)
In the blast furnace, it is so hot that carbon monoxide will also reduce iron oxide: iron oxide + carbon monoxide → iron + carbon dioxide
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Is Copper hard or soft?
Copper is soft and easily bent and so is a good conductor of electricity, which makes it useful for wiring.
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Copper doesn't react with?
Copper doesn't react with water. This makes it useful for plumbing, and making pipes and tanks.
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Some copper ores are...? (complete sentence)
Some copper ores are copper-rich – they have a high concentration of copper compounds.
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Copper can be extracted from? (complete sentence and continue with card 21)
Copper can be extracted from these ores by heating them in a furnace, a process called smelting.
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The copper is then purified using a process called?
The copper is then purified using a process called electrolysis.
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Some plants absorb copper compounds through their roots. They concentrate these compounds as a result of this. The plants can be burned to produce an ash that contains the copper compounds.
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Some bacteria absorb copper compounds. They then produce solutions called leachates, which contain copper compounds.
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Scrap iron:
Copper can also be extracted from solutions of copper salts using scrap iron. Iron is more reactive than copper, so it can displace copper from copper salts.
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(continues from card 26) For example:
iron + copper sulfate → iron sulfate + copper
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What two metals with a low density and it means?
Aluminium and titanium are two metals with a low density. This means that they are lightweight for their size.
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They also have a very thin layer of their oxides on the surface, which stops air and water getting to the metal, so aluminium and titanium resist corrosion.
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Aluminium is used for?
Aluminium is used for aircraft, trains, overhead power cables, saucepans and cooking foil.
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Titanium is used for?
Titanium is used for fighter aircraft, artificial hip joints and pipes in nuclear power stations.
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What cannot be extracted their oxides?
Iron, aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon.R
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Recycling aluminium:
Aluminium is extensively recycled because less energy is needed to produce recycled aluminium than to extract aluminium from its ore.
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Define alloy:
A mixture of two or more elements, where at least one element is a metal, is called an alloy.
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Alloys contain:
Alloys contain atoms of different sizes, which distort the regular arrangements of atoms.
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Are alloys harder than pure metal or softer?
Alloys are harder than the pure metal.
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What are too soft for many uses?
Pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium are too soft for many uses.
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They are mixed...? (complete sentence)
They are mixed with other similar metals to make them harder for everyday use.
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(continue with card 38) For example:
brass, used in electrical fittings, is 70 percent copper and 30 percent zinc
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(continue with card 39) 2nd example:
18 carat gold, used in jewellery, is 75 percent gold and 25 percent copper and other metals
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(continue with card 30) 3rd example:
duralumin, used in aircraft manufacture, is 96 percent aluminium and 4 percent copper and other metals.
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Pure iron:
Pure iron is soft and easily shaped because its atoms are arranged in a regular way that lets layers of atoms slide over each other.
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Iron from the blast furnace is an alloy of about 96 percent iron, with carbon and some other impurities. It is hard, but too brittle for most uses, so most iron from the blast furnace is converted into steel by removing some of the carbon.
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Carbon is removed from molten iron by?
Carbon is removed from molten iron by blowing oxygen into it.
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(continue with card 44)The oxygen reacts with the carbon..? (complete sentence)
The oxygen reacts with the carbon, producing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, which escape from the molten metal.
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Enough oxygen is used to?
Enough oxygen is used to achieve steel with the desired carbon content.
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Low carbon steel describe:
About 0.25 percent carbon, easily shaped, typically used for car body panels.
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High carbon steel:
Up to 2.5 percent carbon, hard, typically used for cutting tools.
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Stainless steel:
Iron alloyed with chromium and nickel, resistant to corrosion, typically used for cutlery and sinks.
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Why can gold be found in the Earth's crust in its native state?
Gold can be found in the Earth's crust in it's native state because gold is very unreactive.
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Why is aluminium extracted from aluminium ore by electrolysis?
Aluminium is more reactive than carbon.
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Why is iron extracted from iron ore by reduction with carbon or carbon monoxide?
Iron is extracted from iron ore by reduction with carbon or carbon monoxide because iron is less reactive than carbon.
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What happens to iron oxide in a blast furnace?
In a blast furnace iron oxide is reduced to form iron.
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What is the percentage of iron in the iron from a blast furnace?
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Why is titanium expensive to extract from its ore?
Titanium is expensive to extract from it's ore because several stages are involved in the extraction process.
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Copper can be obtained by reacting solutions of copper compounds with scrap iron. This sort of reaction is called:
The reaction is called displacement.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Most everyday metals are mixtures called


Most everyday metals are mixtures called alloys.

Card 3


The Earth's crust contains?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


A metal ore is?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Ores need to be...? (complete sentence)


Preview of the front of card 5
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