Chemistry AQA Unit 1: Foundation (1)

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The mass number of an atom is...? (complete sentence)
The mass number of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons it contains.
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The mass number of an atom is...? (complete sentence)
The mass number of an atom is never smaller than the atomic number. It can be the same, but is usually bigger.
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The lowest energy level is called the? and fills what?
The lowest energy level (innermost shell) fills with electrons first.
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The electronic structure of an atom is written using numbers to represent the...? (complete sentence)
The electronic structure of an atom is written using numbers to represent the electrons in each energy level
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When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form?
When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds.
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Chemical bonds form when this happens, which involves...? (complete sentence)
atoms transferring.
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Ions are charged particles that?
Ions are charged particles that form when atoms (or clusters of atoms) lose or gain electrons: metal atoms lose electrons to form positively charged ions non-metal atoms gain electrons to form negatively charged ions
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The ionic bond is the force of what?
The ionic bond is the force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions.
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The atoms in a molecule are joined together by? and form when?
The atoms in a molecule are joined together by covalent bonds and form when atoms share pairs of electrons.
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The chemical formula of a compound shows...? (complete sentence)
The chemical formula of a compound shows how many of each type of atom join together to make the units which make up the compound.
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A unit of Na2SO4 contains?
a unit of Na2SO4 contains two sodium atoms, one sulfur atom and four oxygen atoms joined together
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A unit of Fe(OH)3 contains?
a unit of Fe(OH)3 contains one iron atom, three oxygen atoms and three hydrogen atoms - the brackets show that the 3 applies to O and H
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Left of the arrows are?
Left of the arrows are reactants.
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Right of the arrows is?
Right of the arrow is the product.
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the total mass of products after the reaction is...? (complete sentence)
The total mass of products after the reaction is the same as the total mass of the reactants at the start.
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What does an ionic bond involve?
An ionic bond involves moving electrons between atoms.
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When ions form from atoms:
Metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions
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The formula of sodium sulfate is Na2SO4. How many elements does it contain?
Three.
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Limestone is mainly...? (complete sentence) and when heated forms what?
Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate, CaCO3, which when heated breaks down to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
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Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce?
Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide.
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Limestone and its products have many uses like being used to make...? (complete sentence)
Limestone and its products have many uses, including being used to make cement, mortar and concrete.
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Calcium carbonate breaks down when heated...? (complete sentence) and the reaction is called?
Calcium carbonate breaks down when heated strongly. This reaction is called thermal decomposition.
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Here are the equations for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate:
calcium carbonate (heat) calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
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Metals high up in the reactivity series (such as sodium, calcium and magnesium) have...? (complete sentence)
Metals high up in the reactivity series (such as sodium, calcium and magnesium) have carbonates that need a lot of energy to decompose them.
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Metals low down in the reactivity series, such as copper, have carbonates that...? (complete sentence)
Metals low down in the reactivity series, such as copper, have carbonates that are easily decomposed.
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Why copper carbonate is often used at school?
It is easily decomposed and its colour change, from green copper carbonate to black copper oxide, is easy to see.
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Calcium oxide is...? (complete sentence)
Calcium oxide is yellow when hot, but white when cold.
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How to make calcium hydroxide?
Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali. Here are the equations for this reaction: calcium oxide + water → calcium hydroxide
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Limestone is a type of rock...? (complete sentence)
Limestone is a type of rock, mainly composed of calcium carbonate.
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*Fact about Limestone*
Limestone is quarried (dug out of the ground) and used as a building material.
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Carbonates react with acids to produce...?
Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. For example: calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid → carbon dioxide + calcium chloride + water
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Since limestone is mostly calcium carbonate, it is damaged by?
Since limestone is mostly calcium carbonate, it is damaged by acid rain.
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Sodium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, zinc carbonate and copper carbonate also react with acids what happens?
They fizz when in contact with acids, and the carbon dioxide released can be detected using limewater.
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When limestone is heated strongly, the calcium carbonate it contains...? (complete sentence)
When limestone is heated strongly, the calcium carbonate it contains decomposes to form calcium oxide.
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(countinues with card 34)This reacts with water to form?
This reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali.
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Calcium hydroxide is used to?
alcium hydroxide is used to neutralise excess acidity, for example, in lakes and soils affected by acid rain.
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How is cement made?
Cement is made by heating powdered limestone with clay.
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Mortar:
Mortar, used to join bricks together, is made by mixing cement with sand and water
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Concrete:
Concrete is made by mixing cement with sand, water and aggregate (crushed rock)
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Limestone, cement and mortar slowly react with?
Limestone, cement and mortar slowly react with carbon dioxide dissolved in rainwater and wear away.
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The main advantages of the limestone industry
Limestone is a valuable natural resource, used to make things such as glass and concrete and Limestone quarrying provides employment opportunities that support the local economy in towns around the quarry.
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The main disadvantages of the limestone industry
Limestone quarries are visible from long distances and may permanently disfigure the local environment and Quarrying is a heavy industry that creates noise and heavy traffic, which damages people's quality of life.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The mass number of an atom is...? (complete sentence)

Back

The mass number of an atom is never smaller than the atomic number. It can be the same, but is usually bigger.

Card 3

Front

The lowest energy level is called the? and fills what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The electronic structure of an atom is written using numbers to represent the...? (complete sentence)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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