chemistry

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  • Created by: eden1
  • Created on: 13-05-15 16:51
what is a chemical change?
where something changes into a new substance (colour, shape, smell)
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what is protein?
something made up of complex molecules (amino acid) and are found in some foods
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what is denaturing?
where the bonds decconect from the amino acids
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what is starch?
large carbohydrate with molecules that are polymers of sugars
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what is a carbohydrate?
large group of organic compounds with sugars and starch releasing energy
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what is sodium carbonate?
the main chemical used in baking powder (NaHCO3)
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what is thermal decomposition?
a type of reaction where a large compound is broken down into smaller substances under heat
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what are food additives?
something added to food to enhance its flavor or appearence (lasting longer)
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what are anti-oxidants?
food additives that prevent oxygen reacting with teh food
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what is emulsion?
material which enables a stable mixture to be formed between two liquids that would normally separate like oil and water
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what is hydrophilic?
the part of the molecule that interacts well with water
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what is hydrophobic?
the part of the molecule that does not interact well with water but does interact well with oil.
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what is crude oil made up of?
hundreds of different hydrocarbons
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what is fractional distilation?
it is the process of separating the different sized hydrocarbons from each other
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what is a distillation column
where the crude oil is heated up and each sizes condense at different points where the temperature causes them to condense
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what is the order of the alkanes?
1) methane 2) ethane 3) propane 4) butane 5) hexane
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what is the order of the alkenes?
2) ethane 3) propane 4) butane 5) hexane
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what are alkanes?
they are hydrocarbons with single bonds
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what are alkenes?
they are hydrocarbons with one double bond between two of the carbon atoms
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how do you work out the amount of hydrogens an alkane has?
double the carbon plus two
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how do you work out the amount of hydrogens an alkene has?
the hydrogen is double the carbon
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what hydrocarbons are saturated?
alkanes
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what hydrocarbons are saturated?
alkenes
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what is a polymer?
a long chain of monomers
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what is polymerisation?
when lots of monomers are joined together
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what does the monomer have to have in order form a polymer?
a double bond to break and enable it to join others
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what is a catalyst?
it is something to speed up a reaction
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what is cracking?
this is breaking down large hydrocarbons into smaller ones. it is a form of thermal decomposition
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what is a fuel?
a substance that reacts without oxygen to produce useful energy
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TEACUPS?
toxicity, energy value, availability, cost, usable, pollution, storage
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what is the symbol equation for complete combustion?
fuel + O2 ---> CO2 + H2O
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what is the symbol equation for incomplete combustion?
fuel + O2 ---> CO + H2O / fuel + O2 ---> C + H2O
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what is the air made of?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.035% carbon dioxide
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what is a catalytic converter?
it prevents harmful gases from being released into the environment (photochemical smog and poisonous gases)
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what are the properties of plastic?
low density, insulation of electricity, easily molded and coloured, not degradable, cheap to produce, withstand weathering
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what is an advantage of gore-tex?
it is both waterproof and breathable
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what does non-biodegradable mean?
unable to decompose
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what are the issues with non-biodegradable polymers?
can cause pollution, can cause pollution, can cause global warming, will run out of resources, they last a long time in rubbish dumps
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what is viability?
how easily a liquid can evapourate to how big the attraction force between the molecules are.
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what is an ester?
smells nice
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what is the symbol equation for perfume?
alcohol + carboxylice ---> ester + water
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what is a solute?
something that can dissolve in a liquid
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what is a solvant?
is a liquid that a sollute will dissolve in
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what is a solution?
it is the product made by a solute and solvent
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what is an insoluble substance?
something that cannot dissolve
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what is soluble?
something that can dissolve
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why won't water be used to remove nail varnish?
there are strong attractions between the nail varnish molecules and you need a strong force to break the intermolecular force and water doesn't have a strong attraction to the nail varnish
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what is a pigment?
a substance that gives the paint its colour
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what is a solvent?
it thins the paint and makes it easier to spread
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what is a binder?
a liquid polymer that hardens to form a continuous layer when the paint dries
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what happens when the paint dries when the solvent is water?
the water evaporates leaving the binder and pigment
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what happens when the paint dries when the solvent is oil?
the oil reacts with oxygen and forms a hard and glossy surface
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what is thermochromic paint?
pigments that change colour when the temperature changes
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what are phosphorecent pigments?
they absorb and store energy when light falls on them. in the dark we can see that energy being released as the pigment glows as light is released
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what is diffusion?
where particles spread out instead of dissolving
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who dicovered that the countries once formed together to make pangaea?
Alfred Wegener
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what is sedimentary rock?
small pieces of rock that accumulate and form a rock when they come together
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what is metamorphic rock?
when rock is under high heat and pressure that changes into a new rock
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what is igneous rock?
lava cools down and produces rock
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how does the lava effect the sizes of the crystals?
the quicker the lava cools and dries, the smaller the crystals
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what is an example of sedimentary rock?
limestone (least hard)
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what is an example of metamorphic rock?
marble (more hard)
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what is an example of igneous rock?
granite (hardest)
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what is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate?
calcium carbonate ---> carbon dioxide + calcium oxide
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what is the rate of reaction?
the amount of product formed in a fixed period of time
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what is activation energy?
the minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction
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what are teh factors that effect rate?
temperature, pressure, concentration, catalysts, surface area
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what is the limited reactant?
the reactant that is all used up at the end of the reaction
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what happens if we break up an object into smaller pieces?
the surface area increases
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what is an explosion?
an extremely fast reaction, releasing lots of energy (exothermic) and large volumes of gas
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what is a catalyst?
something that speeds up a reaction and doesn't get used up
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what is the rule for atoms?
atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
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how do you work out a percentage yield?
actual yield / expected yield * 100
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what is the first stage of developing new drugs?
mechanism of disease and possible treatments
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what is the second stage of developing new drugs?
research into a range of chemical compounds with some action against disease
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what is the third stage of developing new drugs?
smaller range of compounds selected for testing
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what is the fourth stage of developing new drugs?
the best compound is selected (tested on cells and animals)
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what is the fifth stage of developing new drugs?
test best compound on healthy volunteers
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what is the sixth stage of developing new drugs?
clinical trials and their analysis
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what is the seventh stage of developing new drugs?
application of lisence for medicine to be used
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what is the eighth stage of developing new drugs?
medicine goes on the market
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what are the factors that effect the costs of developing new drugs?
paying volunteers, marketing, research, raw materials, energy, labour, time taken, any faults or failures, equpment
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what is a patent?
this helps with the payback time as it increases the price of the drug and there is no competition meaning more people will buy your drug
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is protein?

Back

something made up of complex molecules (amino acid) and are found in some foods

Card 3

Front

what is denaturing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is starch?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is a carbohydrate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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