Chemistry

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  • Created by: cat82029
  • Created on: 29-04-15 16:31
Acid
Chemicals that can form hydrogen ions in water to give a solution of pH less than 7
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Activation Energy
Minimum energy that particles must have to react
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Alkali
Base that dissolves in water to form hydroxide ions and give a solution if pH greater than 7
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Alkali Metals
Elements in group 1 of the periodic table
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Ammonia
NH3, a compound used to make fertilisers
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Ammonium Salt
Salts formed when ammonia solution reacts with acid
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Anhydrous
Crystals that do not contain any water
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Atom
Particle with no electric charge containing protons, neutrons and electrons. The smallest part of a chemical element.
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Atom Economy (atom utilisation)
The percentage of the mass of the products of the reaction that is the desired product
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Atomic Number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
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Backwards Reaction
The reverse of a chemical reaction as shown by the symbol equation.
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Base
Substance that reacts with an acid.
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Burette
Apparatus used to measure volumes of lipids.
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Catalyst
Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction, but is not itself used up.
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Collision Theory
Theory that all particles must collide with enough energy to react.
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Combustion
Burning a substance.
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Compound
Substance made from different elements chemically joined together.
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Concentrated
Large amount of solute dissolved in a solvent such as water.
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Concentration
Measure of how much solute is dissolved in a solvent such as water.
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Covalent Bond
A pair of electrons shared between two atoms.
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Crystallisation
Formation of crystals from a solution.
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Dilute
Small amounts of solute dissolved in a solvent such as water.
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Dynamic Equilibrium
Equilibrium where the forward reaction and backwards reaction are both occurring at the same rate.
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Electrolysis
Decomposition of an ionic compound using electricity.
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Electron
A particle inside atoms with a negative electric charge.
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Electrostatic Attraction
The attraction between positive and negative electric charge.
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Element
Substance containing only one type of atom.
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Empirical Formula
Shows the simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a substance.
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Endothermic
Chemical reaction that takes in heat energy.
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End Point
The point in a titration where the acid and alkali have exactly reacted together.
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Energy Level
Orbit in which electrons move around the nucleus inside atoms (also called a shell).
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Equilibrium
Chemical reaction in which the forwards and backwards reactions occur at the same time.
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Exothermic
Chemical reaction that gives out heat energy.
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Forward Reaction
Chemical reaction as shown by the symbol equation.
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Giant Covalent Structure
Structure containing billions of atoms in a network linked together by covalent bonds (also called macromolecular).
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Giant Structure
Regular, continuous structure of atoms or ions.
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Haber Process
Industrial process used to make ammonia.
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Half Equation
Balanced equation showing what happens at an electrode during electrolysis.
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Halogens
Elements in Group 7 of the periodic table.
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Hydrated
Crystals that contain water.
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Hydrogen Ions
H+ ions are formed when an acid dissolves in water.
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Hydroxide Ions
OH– ions found in all alkaline solutions.
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Indicator
Chemical that changes colour at the end point.
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Inorganic Fertilisers
Manufactured chemicals containing nitrogen, which are added to the soil to increase crop yield.
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Insoluble
Substance that does not dissolve in a liquid such as water.
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Intermolecular Forces
Weak attractive forces between molecules.
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Ion
Electrically charged particle containing a different number of protons and electrons.
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Ionic Bonding
Attraction between positive and negative ions.
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Ionic Compound
Substance made up from positive and negative ions.
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Ionic Equation
Equation that shows what happens to the ions in a reaction.
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Ionic Structure
Substance made up of positive and negative ions.
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Isotope
Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons (the same atomic number but a different mass number).
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Lattice
A regular, continuous structure of atoms or ions.
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Macromolecular Structure
Giant covalent structure.
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Mass Number
Number of protons + the number of neutrons in an atom.
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Metallic
Substance that is a metal.
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Metallic Bonding
Attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
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Molar Volume
Volume of 1 mole of gas at room temperature and pressure.
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Mole
One mole of a substance contains 6.02 x 1023 formula units. The mass of substance containing the same number of fundamental units as there are atoms in exactly 12.000 g of 12C.
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Molecular Formula
Shows the number of atoms of each element in one molecule.
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Molecule
Particle made of atoms joined to each other by covalent bonds.
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Monatomic
Substance made up of lots of individual atoms.
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Nanomaterials
Substances made of particles that are between 1 and 100 nanomaterials in size.
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Nanoparticles
Particles that are between 1 and 100 nm in size.
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Nanoscience
The study of structures that are between 1 and 100 nm in size.
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Neutralisation
Reaction of an acid with a base.
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Neutron
A particle inside the nucleus of an atom with no electric charge.
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Noble Gases
Elements in group zero of the periodic table.
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Nucleus
The centre of an atom containing protons and neutrons.
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Oxidation
Gain of oxygen (in terms of oxygen); loss of electrons (in terms of electrons).
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Percentage Yield
Mass of product obtained from a reaction expressed as a percentage of the theoretical maximum mass.
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pH Scale
Scale used to measure the strength of acids and alkalis.
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Pipette
Apparatus used to measure the exact volumes of liquid.
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Precipitation Reaction
Reaction in which two solutions mix and form an insoluble salt.
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Products
Substances formed during a chemical reaction.
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Proton
A particle with a positive charge found in the nucleus of an atom.
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Proton Number
Number of protons in an atom (atomic number).
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Rate of Reaction
Speed of a reaction expressed as the amount of reactant used up or amount of product formed over time.
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Reactants
Substances that react together in a chemical reaction.
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Reduction
Loss of oxygen (in terms of oxygen); Gain of electrons (in terms of electrons).
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Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)
Average mass of an atom relative to 1/12 in the mass of a 12C atom.
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Relative Formula Mass (Mr)
Some of all the relative atomic masses of the atoms in a formula, the average mass of all the atoms in a formula relative to 1/12 of the mass of a 12C atom.
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Relative Mass
Mass of a particle relative to 1/12 the mass of a 12C atom.
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Reversible Reaction
Chemical reaction that can go in either direction.
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Shell
Orbit in which electrons move around the nucleus inside atoms (also called an energy level).
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Simple Molecular Structure
Substance made up of lots of separate molecules.
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Smart Materials
Materials which have one or more properties that change in different conditions.
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Soluble
Substance that dissolves in a liquid such as water.
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Solute
Solid that dissolves in a solvent to make a solution.
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Solution
Solute dissolved in as liquid such as water.
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Specific (about a catalyst)
The fact that most catalysts work for one reaction only.
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Strong Acid
Acid which forms lots of hydrogen ions when added to water.
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Strong Alkali
Alkali which forms lots of hydroxide ions when added to water.
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Thermal Decomposition
Splitting up a compound by the action of heat.
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Titration
Method of finding volumes of solutions that react together.
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Weak Acid
Acid that does not form many H+ ions in water.
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Weak Alkali
Alkali that does not form many OH– ions in water.
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Yield
Mass of a substance made in a chemical reaction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Minimum energy that particles must have to react

Back

Activation Energy

Card 3

Front

Base that dissolves in water to form hydroxide ions and give a solution if pH greater than 7

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Elements in group 1 of the periodic table

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

NH3, a compound used to make fertilisers

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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