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  • Created by: XxzoexX
  • Created on: 10-03-15 21:40
What does the atomic number show?
The number of protons and electrons
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How do you find out how many neutrons there are?
Mass number - atomic number
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How many electro can the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th shell hold?
1st = 2. 2nd = 8. 3rd = 8. 4th = 18
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What does the period number on the periodic table tell you?
How many shells the electron structure has
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What does the group number tell you on the period table tell you?
The number of electrons in the outer shell
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what is an element?
a substance made up of only one type of atom
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what happens when elements react together?
the atoms try and become stable by having a full outer electron shell
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what does group 1 in the periodic table have in common?
-must be stored in oil to stop them reacting with the air -they react with water -all dense -all fizz and make a gas -gives of heat -all soft
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why are some atoms more reactive then others?
they need to lose or gain electrons to become stable - to be left with a full outer shell
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why do some atoms not react with each other?
they already have a full outer shell, so they don't need to lose or gain electrons, they are already stable
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metals atoms lose electrons to make what?
positive ions
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non-metals atoms gain electrons to make what?
negative ions
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what does oxidised mean?
a reaction where oxygen is gained
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what does reduced mean?
a reaction where oxygen is removed
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what is a redox reaction?
when both reduction and oxidation are happening
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what is does the blast furnace do?
this is where we get iron from iron ores
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why is limestone added to the blast furnace?
to remove rubbish in the rock + it makes **** which is waste material
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what are positive ions called?
cation (they are pawsitive)
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what are negative ions called?
anions ( a negative ion)
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why is the temperature 1000 degrees when extracting metal using electrolysis?
because the electrolyte must be molten so the ions are free to move.if the ions were not free to move it would not conduct electricity
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why is electrolysis expensive?
-it uses a lot of electricity -a lot of heat is needed to melt the ore to start with
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what are some properties of copper?
-good electrical and thermal conductor -easily joined -tough -recyclable -non magnetic
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what are the uses of copper?
-electrical products -water pipes -statues -pots and pans -musical instruments -coins
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what is smelting?
this involves heating ores in a furnace. e.g. copper sulfide is heating in the air to produce copper
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what are the problems with smelting?
-the SO2 releases acid rain -heating up the furnace uses up fossil fuels and puts more CO2 into the air -produces waste rock
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what is phytomining?
plants are grown on soil/rock containing copper - plants take in the copper - chop down and burn the plant - copper/copper compounds are found in the ash
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what are some advantages and disadvantages of phytomining?
adv-can use ores that only contain little copper, uses less energy disadv- slow process as it involves plants growing, more difficult in winter
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what is bioleaching?
using bacteria to grow on the ore. it produces a solution of copper. scrap iron may be used to get copper from a solution
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what is a alloy?
a mixture of several different metals
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why can pure irons soft?
all the atoms are the same size so they can slide past each other
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why cant alloys atoms strong?
there are different sized atoms so they cant slide past each other
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what are some properties of transition metals?
-flexible -good conductor of electricity -high melting point -unreactive
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what are transition metals used for?
useful as structural materials and they are good for making things that need to let heat or electricity pass through them easily
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what is a hydrocarbon?
a compound made from just hydrogen and carbon atoms
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how do you work out the number of hydrogen atoms in a alkane?
you double the carbon atoms and add 2
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what is crude oil a mixture of?
a mixture of different hydrocarbons. they vary in size from 1 carbon atom long to 100 carbon atoms long
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what are the properties of short molecules in crude oil?
-low boiling and melting point -lighter colour -less viscous -more flammable
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what are the properties of longer molecules in crude oil?
-high melting and boiling point -darker in colour -more viscous (gloopy) -less flammable, burn with a smoke
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what is fractional distilation?
this sorts out/separates the different sized oil fractions of molecules
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how does the fractionating column work?
the crude oil is heated and turned in a vapour. the bottom of the column is hotter than the top. as the oil rises it cools and turns back into a liquid.The smaller molecules exit at the top of the column and he longer molecule exit at the bottom
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why does fractional distillation work?
the different sized molecules have different boiling points so they change back into a liquid at different points
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what gases are given off by burning fuels?
-water vapour -carbon dioxide -carbon monoxide (if there isn't enough oxygen) -soot (unburned carbon)
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what is acid rain?
due to carbon dioxide which dissolves in rain water and forms carbonic acid
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what gases cause acid rain?
sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxie
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what are the problems with acid rain?
-it speeds up chemical weathering of rocks and buildings -rivers, lakes and streams become more acidic so that animals and plants cannot live -soil becomes more acidic which means plants and trees cannot live in them
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what are the solutions to acid rain?
burn less fuels low in sulphur
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what is the greenhouse effect?
certain gases in the atmosphere trap some of the heat given off from the earth. this trapped heat reflects back to the surface and warms the earth
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was gases cause the greenhouse effect?
carbon dioxide and methane
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where does methane come from?
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what is cracking?
a thermal decomposition reaction. in cracking oil fractions are heated so they vaporise.
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what are the solutions of cracking?
breaking the long hydrocarbon molecules into more useful short ones
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what does cracking need?
-high temperature to break the molecules -catalyst to speed up the reaction
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how is plastic made?
by polymerisation. This is where small molecules (monomers) join together to make long molecules (plastic)
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what are the properties and used of hydrogel (smart polymer)?
properties-absorbs large volume of water use- nappies
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what are the properties of dental polymer?
changes colour when it is ready to take an impression of teeth
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describe how smart polymers are being used in plasters?
to remove plaster you peel of the top layer but the lower layer stays stuck to the skin.this plaster uses lightsensitive polymer which makes the plaster less sticky, making it easier to peel of skin.
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what are the problems with plastic?
crude oil is running out, so new materials will need to be found, we just throw them when finished with them, last for hundred of years before they are broken down,
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what are degradable plastics?
plastics that will rot away in the soil when dumped
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what plants are rich in oil?
seeds, fruit and nuts
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why is vegetable oil used to cook food?
it boils at a high temperature compared to water and it effects the taste
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why are some oils in our diet good for us?
provides energy, nutrients but too much oil would mean to much calories so we would gain weight
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how do you extract oil from seeds?
crush the seed, then add a solvent, then filter it and finally remove solvent/distil it
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what is an emulsions?
emulsions are made from oil and water mixed together with an emulsifier which keeps them mixed. e.g.salad dressing s olive oil, red wine, vinegar and mustard (emulsifier)
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what are the properties of saturated fats?
-single bond -bromine water stays orange/brown -harder/solid -higher melting point
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what are the properties of unsaturated fats?
-double bonds -bromine water goes from brown/orange to colourless -softer/can be liquid -lower melting point
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what is bioethanol?
ethanol made from plants (sugar canes, corn and maize)
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what are 2 advantages of using ethanol instead of petrol in cars?
-doesnt release carbon dioxide -made from renewable resources
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what is meant by carbon neutral?
burning fuels releases the same amount of carbon dioxide as was taken in carbon dioxide levels dont go up
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what is the crust like on the structure of the earth?
thin and rocky
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what is the mantle like on the structure of the earth?
properties of a solid, but can flow very slowly
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what is the core like on the structure of the earth?
made from liquid nickel and iron
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why do tectonic plates more?
-radio activity heat up the earth's core, this creates a convection current in the mantle, the movements of the mantle drag the tectonic plates.
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what is the cooling earth theory?
mountains formed because the earth was cooling down and in doing so contrasted.this was believed to form wrinkles or mountains in the earth's crust
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what is Wegeners theory of tectonic plates?
he suggested that mountains were formed when the edge of a drifting continent collided with another causing it to crumble and fold
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why was Wegeners theory not accepted at the time?
scientists dont accept the results of experiments until someone else has repeated it to get the same results
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how do volcanoes occur?
where tectonic plates meet the earth's crust become unstable as the plates slide past each other,magma is less dense than the crust so it can rise to the surface, forming a volcano
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how do mountains occur?
the movement of tectonic plates can be sudden, crashing into each other
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how much oxygen,nitrogen, argon and CO2 is there in todays atmosphere?
oxygen=21% nitrogen=78% argon=0.9% CO2=0.037%
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what is nitrogen used for?
liquid nitrogen is used to freeze food, food is packed in gaseous nitrogen to increase its shelf life
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How do you find out how many neutrons there are?


Mass number - atomic number

Card 3


How many electro can the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th shell hold?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the period number on the periodic table tell you?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the group number tell you on the period table tell you?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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