Chemistry 2- Basic Concepts

Empirical Formula
simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
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Molecular Formula
the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
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General Formula
simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Structural Formula
minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Displayed Formula
the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them
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Skeletal Formula
simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
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Homologous Series
a series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by ch2
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Functional Group
a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
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State the Names of first ten members of the alkanes
meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct, non, dec
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Structural Isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
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Stereoisomers
compounds with the same structural formula but with different arrangements in space
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E/Z isomerism
an example of stereo isomerism in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to be attached to each carbon atom of the c=c group
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cis-trans isomerism
a special case of of E/Z isomerism in which there are two non hydrogen groups and two hydrogens around the double bond.
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Reaction Mechanisms
a sequence of reactions
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Percentage yield
actual (mol) over theoretical (mol) times 100 percent
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Atom Economy
molecular mass of desired over molmass of all products times 100 percent
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What are differences between the atom economy of subsitution and addition reactions?
addition have 100% (two or more combine to make larger) whereas substitution (functional group being replaced) are less efficient
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What are the benefits of developing chemical processes with a high atom economy?
There will be fewer waste materials created
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Why can a reaction have a low atom economy but a high percentage yield?
A reaction can produce lots of waste materials yet produces close to 100% of the theoretical mass
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Homolytic Fission
Forming two radicals, sharing one electron each
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Heterolytic Fission
Forms a cation and an anion, one atom takes both electrons of the pair
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the actual number of atoms of each element in a compound

Back

Molecular Formula

Card 3

Front

simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the relative positioning of atoms and the bonds between them

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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