Chemistry 2

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Nucleus
Controls what the cell does. Contains instructions to make new cells.
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Cell membrane
Gives the cell shape and controls what goes in an out of the cell
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Cytoplasm
Chemical reactions go on inside which keep the cell alive.
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Cell wall
Covers the cell wall. Made of cellulose which strengthens the cell.
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Chloroplasts
Contains chlorophyll to trap light energy.
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Vacuole
Filled with a liquid called cell sap (contains sugar and cell waste)
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Plants
Tough cellulose walls. Chloroplasts. Large vacuole. Box like shape. Nucleus to the side of the cell.
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Animal
Don't have cellulose walls. Don't have chloroplasts. Sometimes have a vacuole but no sap. Shape varies. Nucleus in the middle of the cell.
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Specialised cells
Red blood. Nerve. Muscle. Sperm. Palisade. Xylem. Root.
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Red blood cell
No nucleus. Increased surface area to take in more oxygen.
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Nerve cell
Very long to carry impulses.
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Muscle cell
Long and thin which can contract.
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Sperm cell
Tail for swimming. Little cytoplasm.
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Palisade cell
Found in leaves. Chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
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Xylem cell
Hollow to transport water and nutrients.
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Root hair cell
Increased surface area. More uptake of water and nutrients.
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Other cells
Bacteria. Yeast. Algae. Virus'.
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Bacterium
Cell wall but not made of cellulose. Small vacuole. No nucleus but nuclear movement and loops of DNA. Plasmoids (additional DNA). Ribosomes.
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Yeast
Produced by budding. Larger than bacteria. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Cell wall.
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Algae
Photosynthetic tissue. Cell wall. Chloroplasts. Cytoplasm. Cell membrane.
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Virus'
Parasites. Smallest of all cells. Made of a protein capsule and genetic material.
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Stem cells
Stem cells are that of which can replace any type of cell. They are not differentiated yet (specialised)
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Enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts which are made by a chain of amino acids
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Gene
A gene is a section of DNA that codes for a particular protein.
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Diffusion
Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a lower concentration until they are spread out evenly.
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Osmosis
Osmosis is the passage of water molecules from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane
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Turgidity
When a plant cell is put into water, water will enter it using osmosis.
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Plasmolysis
When a cell is put into a strong sugar solution, water will leave the cell by Osmosis.
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Active transport
Uptake of particles by cells against a concentration gradient.
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The law of limiting factors
The factor in the shortest supply that limits the rate of photosynthesis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Gives the cell shape and controls what goes in an out of the cell

Back

Cell membrane

Card 3

Front

Chemical reactions go on inside which keep the cell alive.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Covers the cell wall. Made of cellulose which strengthens the cell.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Contains chlorophyll to trap light energy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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