Chemistry + Psychology

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  • Created by: Farhin
  • Created on: 28-01-14 17:16
Enthalpy Change
The energy change of a system at constant pressure
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Exothermic
Give out energy, temperature goes up & H is negative
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Endothermic
Absorb energy, temperature falls & H is positive
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Formation,
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions
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Standard Enthalpy Change of Combustion,
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of an element or compound reacts completely with O under standard conditions
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q = mc T
q = heat lost or gained, m = mass of solution, c = specific heat capacity of solution, T = change in temperature of solution
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Hess's Law
The enthalpy change accompanying a chemical change is independent of the route by which the chemical change occurs
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Mean Bond Enthalpy
The energy needed to break one mole of bonds in the gas phase, averaged over many compounds
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Electrophile
A reagent attracted to electrons that participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond
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Nucleophile
A chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction
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Curly Arrow
Points to where the electrons will end up
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E/Z Isomerism
Molecules which are different in their arrangement in space, differentiated by e or z
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Geometrical Isomers
A form of stereoisomerism. Molecules that have the same molecular formula, but have a different arrangement of the atoms in space
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Electrophile Additions
Where the high electron density area of a molecule are attacked by an electrophile
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Halides
A binary compound of a halogen with another element or group
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Classical Conditioning
Learning new behaviour via association
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Operant Conditioning
Learning new behaviour via consequences
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Stage 1: Before Conditioning
Involves UCS produces an UCR, & another stimulus which has no affect on a person & is called the NS
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Stage 2: During Conditioning
The NS is associated with the UCS to become a CS
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Stage 3: After Conditioning
Now the CS has been associated with the UCS to produce a CR
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Reinforcers
Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated
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Punisherment
Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated
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Aim Of Rosenhan
To test the hypothesis that psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the difference between people who are sane & those who are insane
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Method (R 1)
8 people tried to get admitted to 12 psychiatric hospitals with the same symptom
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Method (R 2)
Hospitals were told that pseudopatients were going to try getting in, no pseudopatients tried
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Rosenhan Sample
Staff at the 12 psychiatric hospitals
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Results (R 1)
7 pseudoptients were admitted as insane, 1 admitted as bipolar
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Results (R 2)
Staff & patients were suspected or judged as a pseudopatients
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Explanation (R)
The main experiment illustrated a failure to detect sanity, & the secondary study demonstrated a failure to detect insanity
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Ethics (R)
The hospital staff was deceived, privacy of patients & staff were upheld,
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Improvements (R)
Send out questionnaires instead, send in observers
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Type 1 Error
Misdiagnosis of a sane person
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Type 2 Error
Misdiagnosis of an insane person
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Method (T & C)
Case study method. Consisted of interviews, hypnosis, observation, EEG tests & a number of psychometric & projective tests including, memory tests, ink blot tests & intelligence tests
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Aim Of T& C
To provide an account of the psychotherapeutic treatment of a 25-year-old woman who was referred to T & C because of 'severe & blinding headaches'
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Overview Of Interviews (T & C)
Over 14 months, approx. 100 hours of video
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Differences Between Personalities
EW & Jane had 110 IQ, 11 on EEG. EB had 104 IQ, 12.5 on EEG. EW was repressive, EB was regressive.
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Behavioural Addiction
Consists of a compulsion to repeatedly engage in an action until it causes negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social, &/or financial well-being
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Addiction
The state of being enslaved to a habit or practice or to something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming, as narcotics, to such an extent that its cessation causes severe trauma
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Aim Of Griffiths
To investigate cognitive bias involved in gambling behaviour
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Method (G)
Quasi experiment & IV is whether participants are regular or non-regular gamblers
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Sample (G)
60 participants, 44 were males & 16 were females
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Conditions (G)
Regular/non-regular gambler, split into thinking aloud & not thinking aloud
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Behavioural Dependent Variable
Total plays, total time, play rate, end stake, wins, win rate (time), wins rate (plays
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Explanation (G)
Gamblers think differently when on fruit machines
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give out energy, temperature goes up & H is negative

Back

Exothermic

Card 3

Front

Absorb energy, temperature falls & H is positive

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of an element or compound reacts completely with O under standard conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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