Chemistry 1


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What are the charge's of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons?
neutrons are possitive, neutrons have no charge and electrons are negative.
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What is an element?
A substance containing only one type of atom.
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What is the top number of an element on periodic table?
The mass number, total number of protons and neutrons.
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What is the bottom number of an element on the periodic table?
atomic number, number of protons, equal to number of electrons.
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What is a compound?
When different elements react, atoms form chemical bonds with other atoms.
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What is ionic bonding?
A compound formed from metals and non metals, the metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and the non metal atom gains electrons to form negative ions. The opposite charges are strongly attracted to each other.
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What is a convalent bond?
A compound formed from non metals share electrons withanother atom.
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what is the reaction for limestone when it is heated?
Calcium Carbonate(CaCo3) = calcium oxide(CaO) + carbon dioxide(Co2)
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what is this process called?
Thermal decomposition
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What is the reaction when calcium carbonate reacts with an acid?
Calcium carbonate(CaCo3) + Sulfuric acid(H2SO4) = calcium sulfate(CaSO4) + carbon dioxide(Co2) + water(H2O)
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What is the reaction to make calcium hydroxide?
Calcium oxide(CaO) + water(H2O) = Calcium Hydroxide(Ca(OH)2)
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What two things can calcium hydroxide be used for?
To neutralise acidic soils and to test for carbon dioxide.
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What is the equation for testing for carbon dioxide?
Calcium hydroxideCa(OH)2 + carbon dioxide(CO2)= calcium carbonate(CaCO3) + water(H2O)
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How do you make concrete?
When you heat limestone with clay it makes cement. The cement can be mixed with aggregate and sand to create concrete.
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name 5 problems with quarrying limestone
1.makes huge holes, permanently changing landscape. 2. Makes noise and dust. 3.Destroys habitats. 4.Limestone needs to be transported away causing pollution. 5.Waste materials produce unsightly tips.
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name 5 possitive things with quarrying limestone
1.Provides people with things they want. 2.Provides local jobs. 3.Products can be used to neutralise acidic soils. 4.Limestone can be used in power station chimneys to neutralise sulfur dioxide. 5.Once complete restoration of area is required.
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Advantages of limestone products?
limestone is widely available and cheaper than granite or marble, easy rock to cut, fire resistant, doesn't rot, hard wearing, looks attractive
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What is a metal ore?
A metal ore is a rock that contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting it.
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What is one way to extract a metal from its ore?
Reduction with carbon
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When do you use reduction with carbon and what is it?
Carbon takes the oxygen away from metals which are less reactive that itself.
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What is the other way to extract a metal from its ore?
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What is the layout electrolysis?
There is an electrolyte (a metal salt solution) which has free electrons conducting electricity. There is a possitive annode and negative cathode.
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How does electrolysis work?
Electrons are pulled of the anode causing them to go into the solution as possitive ions. The possitive ions near the cathode gain electrons and become copper atoms.
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How does electolysis work? Part 2
The impurities are dropped off as sludge at the anode, whilst pure atoms bond to the cathode.
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What is a displacement reaction?
When a more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal in a compound.
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What is bioleaching?
Bacteria gets energy from the bonds seperating the metal from the ore in the process.
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What is phytomining?
You grow plants in soil that contains metal, the metal in the plants leave build up. The plant can be harvested, dried andburned. The metal can be collected in the ashes.
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What are 3 reasons why recycling metals is important?
1.Mining and extracting metals takes lots of energy which comes from burning fossil fuels that are running out. 2.Theres a finite amount of metals in the earth. 3.It cuts down the amount of rubbish in landfill sites.
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What are the properties of copper?
Good conductor of electricity, hard and strong but can be bent, doesnt react with water. Its good for electrical wires and water pipes.
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What are the properties of Aluminium?
Corrossion resistant, low density, when its pure it isnt very strong but can form hard alloys. Good for aeroplanes.
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What are the properties of Titanium?
Corrossion resistant, very strong and low density. Good for replacement hips.
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What is an alloy?
When you mix two metals together or a metal with a non metal.
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How is steel made?
By adding small amounts of carbon.
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What are the properties and uses of low carbon steel?
easily shaped and used for car bodies
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What are the properties and uses of high carbon steel?
very hard, inflexible used for blades, cutting tools, bridges
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What are the properties and uses of stainless steel?
corrosion resistant used for cutlery
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How is crude oil formed?
From buried remains of plants and animals- it is a fossil fuel.
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What is crude oil? (in terms of hydrocarbons)
It is a mixture of many different compounds that are mainly hydrocarbon molecules. They are made of just carbon and hydrogen.There are no chemical bonds so they keep their own original properties. The hydrocarbons in crude oil are alkanes.
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What are the different parts of the fractionating column?
Bitumen, Oil, Diesel, Kerosene, Naptha, Petrol, Refinery Gas.
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Describe fractional distillation of crude oil.
The fractionating column works continuously, with heated crude oil at the bottom. The vaporised oil rises up the column and are tapped off at the fractions where they condense.
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What are alkanes?
They are made up of chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms.
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Whats the alkane formula?
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What are the first four alkanes?
Methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, Propane C3H8, Butane C4H10.
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What are the 3 properties of hydrocarbons?
The shorter the molecules the more runny (less viscous). the shorter the molecule the more volatile (the lower the boiling point), the shorter the molecules the more flammable.
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Why is it better to use crude oil rather than alternative ways such as solar?
because things are set up for crude oil and its more reliable.
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What is the problems with crude oil?
It is non-renewable so it will run out, oil spills, cause of global warming, acid rain and global dimming.
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How is burning fossil fuels bad to the environment?
Must fuels contain hydrocarbons, during combustion, the hydrocarbons are oxidised so carbon dioxide and water vapour are released in the atmosphere.
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What is the equation for this?
hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water vapour
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What are three other problems with burning fuels?
If there is sulfur in the fuel it is released as sulfur dioxide, if burnt at high temperature oxides of nitrogen are released and if there isnt enough oxygen the fuel doesnt burn called partial combustion causing particulates and soot to bereleased.
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What does sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen do?
It causes acid rain when sulfur dioxide mixes with the clouds it forms dilute sulfuric acid which falls as acid rain. Oxides of nitrogen is the same.
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What are problems with acid rain?
Causes lakes to become acidic(many plants and animals die), kills tree's, damages limestone buildings and ruins stone statues. There are links between health problems and acid rain.
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How do you reduce acid rain?
sulfur can be removed before the fuel is burntbut it costs more.
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How does carbon dioxide cause climate change?
It causes the average temperature of Earth to heat up as it contributes to global warming which is a type of climate change.
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What is global dimming?
Less sunlight is getting to the Earth's surface because particles of soot and ash that are produced when fossil fuels are burnt reflet sunlight back into space and form clouds that reflect the sun light back into space.
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What is ethanol?
produced from plant material so it is a biofuel made by fermentation of plants and is used to power cars.
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What are the pro's of ethanol?
co2 released when burnt was taken in by the plant as it grew so its carbon neutral and only other product is water
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What are the con's of ethanol?
engines need to be converted before they can use ethanol fuel, isn't widely available, as demand for it increases farmers will switch to growing crops for ethanol leaving an increase in food prices
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What is Biodiesel?
another type of biofuel made from vegetable oils it can be mixed with ordinary diesel fuel to run a diesel engine
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What are the pro's of biodiesel?
carbon neutral, engines don't need to be converted, produces less sulfur dioxide and particulates than ordinary diesel or petrol
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What are the con's of biodiesel?
can't make enough to replace diesel, expensive, increase in food prices
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What is hydrogen gas?
Get hyrdrogen from the electrolysis of water
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What are the pro's of hydrogen gas?
combines with oxygen in the air to form just water so it's very clean
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What are the con's of hydrogen gas?
difficult to store, special engine, hydrgen isn't widely available
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What is cracking?
A thermal decomposition reaction splitting long chain hydrocarbons produced from fractional distillation into more useful smaller ones
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How does cracking work?
Heat the long chain hydrocarbon to vaporise it, the vapour is passed over a powdered catalyst and the long chain molecules crack on the surface of the catalyst creating prodcuts that are alkanes and alkenes
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What are alkenes?
They have a double bond and are unsaturated because they can make more bonds
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What is the formula for alkenes?
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What is the first two alkenes?
Ethene, Propene...
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How does ethene make ethanol?
Ethene can be hydrated with steam in the presence of a catalyst to make ethanol
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How can ethanol be produced from renewable resources?
Fermentation of sugar- sugar=carbon dioxide+ethanol
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What are the pro's of fermentation with sugar?
low temperatures, simple equipment, renewable resource, create cheap fuel
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What are the con's of fermentation with sugar?
The ethanol isn't very concentrated so if you want to increase its strength you have to distil it and it needs to be purified
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What is polymerisation?
Joining lots of small alkene molecules to form a very larg molecule called polymers
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polymerisation image
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What does polymers properties depend on?
The higher the temperature and bigger the pressure makes it more flexible and less dense, the lower the temperature and lower the pressure and with a catalyst makes it more rigid and dense
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What are uses of polymers?
plastic bags, tights, plasters, tooth fillings...
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What are the disadvantages of polymers?
They aren't biodegradable meaning they aren't broken down by microorganisms so they don't rot hogging up space in landfill sides so its best to re-use them.
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How are oils extracted from plants?
The plant material is crushed then press the crushed material in between two matal plates and squash the oil out
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What are vegetable oils used for?
in food- provide a lot of energy, nutrients, contain essential fatty acids. Cooking-higher boiling points than water so food can be cooked at higher temperatures making it quicker and gives the food a different flavour, increases energy we get when
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carry on above q.
eating it. turned into fuels
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What are unsaturated oils?
oils and fasts contain long chain molecules with lots of carbon atoms they are unsaturated if they contain double bonds
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How do you test for unsaturated oils?
It de colourises bromine water as the bromine opens up the double bonds and joins o.
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What are the two types of unsaturated fat?
Monounsaturated fats contain one double bond, polyunsaturated fats contain more than one double bond
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How are unsaturated oils hydrogenated?
unsaturated oils are liquid at room temperature they can be hardened by reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst. This is called hydrogenation. The hydrogen reacts with the double-bonded carbons and opens them out.
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What are pro's of hydrogenated oils?
They have higher melting points, longer shelf life
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What are the con's of hydrogenated oils?
more trans fats which are very bad for you
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How do ois affect health?
natural unsaturated fats such as olive oil reduce the amount of blood cholesterol, saturated fats are less healthy than unsaturated fats
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How do emulsions work?
when you mix oil and water they are thicker than either oil or water and the more oil in the solution the thicker it is
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How do emulsifiers work?
They are molecules one part is attracted to water is hydrophilic and the part attracted to oil is hydrophobic
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emulsifier image
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Pro's of emulsifiers
stop emulsions from spreading out giving them a longer shelf life
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Con's of emulsifiers
some people could have an allergic reaction
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What is Wegeners theory?
Continental drift that once everything was one continent then it split. His evidence was everything has a jigsaw layer, found fossils of similar plants and animals on opposite sides of oceans, matching layers in rocks in different continents
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Why wasn't Wegener believed?
He had inaccurate data
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What are the layers of the Earth?
crust(very thin and surrounded by the atmoshphere), mantle(all the properties of a solid but flows slowly in here radioactive decay takes place producing heat causing it to flow in convection currents), core(iron and nickel)
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What do you know about tectonic plates?
The crust and upper mantle is cracked into a number of large pieces called tectonic plates that don't stay in one place(drift due to convection currents in the mantle)
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Where do volcanoes and earthquakes occur?
At boundaries of tectonic plates
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Why can't scientists predict earthquakes and volcanic eruptions?
Its sudden,
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What is step one of evolution of the atmosphere?
The earth's surface was molten for millions of years too hot for an atmosphere. When things cooled down a thin crust formed but volcanoes kept erupting. The volcanoes gave off CO2 water vapour methane and ammonia. The oceans formed when the water
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carry on above q
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What is step two of evolution of the atmosphere?
Green plants and algae evolved happy in the CO2 atmosphere , CO2 dissolved in oceans, green plants and algae absorbed CO2 and produced O2 by photosynthesis. Plants and algae died buried under layers of sediments. The carbon and hydrocarbon inside
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carry on above .
them came locked up in sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels(when we burn fossil fuels today this 'locked up' carbon is released.
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What is step three of evolution of the atmosphere?
The build up of oxygen killed off early organisms who couldn't cope with it and allowed other more complex organisms to evolve, it created the ozone layer blocking harmful rays enabling more complex organisms to evolve.
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What is the primordial soup theory?
Billions of years ago the earth's atmosphere was rich in nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia, methane then lightning struck causing a chemical reaction between these gases resulting in amino acids. The amino acids collected together in a 'primordial soup'
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carry on above q.
they combined to produce organic matter which evolved into living organisms. Miller and Urey carried out an experiment to prove this.
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What happens in fractional distillation of air?
air is filtered to remove dust, cooled to become a liquid during cooling water vapour condenses and is removed, carbon dioxide freezes and is removed, the liquified air enters the fractionating column and is heated slowly. The remaining gases are
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