Chemistry 1 revision

What is crude oil?
Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds.
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How is crude oil formed?
It is formed from the remains of plants and animals which died millions of years ago.
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What is a hydrocarbon?
the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
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What happens when you burn a fossil fuel?(what is released)
carbon dioxide. water (vapour), which is an oxide of hydrogen. sulphur dioxide (This gas dissolves in rain and forms acid rain)
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What is fractional distillation?
Fractional distillation is different from distillation in that it separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions.
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Which part if the fractional distillation column is the hottest?
The bottom
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Which 3 hydrocarbon are released from top half of the fractional distillation column?
LPG,Petrol & Paraffin
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Which 4 hydrocarbon are released from bottom half of the fractional distillation column?
Bitumen, Fuel oils, Heating oils & diesel
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What are the problems associated with extracting crude oil?
Transporting oil can cause oil slicks which affect species. Political conflict over oil supplies.
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What is cracking?
A process thats turns large alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules
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What is combustion?
Combustion is the name given to reactions where a fuel combines with oxygen
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Give examples of combustion?
Natural gas (methane),petrol, oil, diesel and jet fuel (kerosine)
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What is the equation for the combustion of natural gas?
methane + oxygen ➙ carbon dioxide + water
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What is complete combustion?
It occurs when a fuel burns in plenty of oxygen
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Is more energy released in complete or incomplete combustion?
Complete combustion
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Which toxic gas is released in incomplete combustion?
Carbon Monoxide (toxic gas) or soot( carbon)
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What is the word equation for incomplete combustion?
fuel + oxygen ➙ Carbon or carbon monoxide + water
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What is the balanced equation for complete combustion?
CH₄ + 2O₂ ➙ CO₂ +2H₂O
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What is the balanced equation for incomplete combustion?
CH₄ + O₂ ➙C+2H₂O
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What is clean air made up of?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.035% carbon dioxide
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What are some factors of Carbon Dioxide levels rising?
Deforestation and an increase in population
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The stages of the creation of the atmosphere
1. The gasses escaping the interior of the Earth formed the original atmosphere.2. Plants photosynthesized releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.3.Volcano's degassed.4.Carbon dioxide was dissolved into the oceans.5. organisms photosynthesized.
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What are the problems with Sulfur Dioxide?
It causes difficulties for people with asthma and it can dissolve in water to form acid rain which can damage wildlife and limestone buildings.
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What does a catalytic converter do in a car?
It converts Carbon monoxide into Carbon dioxide.
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What is the word equation for a catalytic converter?
Carbon Monoxide + Nitric oxide ➙ Carbon dioxide + Nitrogen
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What is the balanced equation for a catalytic converter?
2CO + 2NO ➙ N₂ + 2CO₂
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What are alkanes?
Hydrocarbons with single convalent bonds (SATURATED)
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What are alkenes?
Hydrocarbons with double convalent bonds (UNSATURATED)
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What is used to test for a alkene andwhat colour does it turn?
Orange Bromine water, colourless
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What is formed when Bromine water reacts with an alkene?
A dibromo compund which is colourless.
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What is addition polymerisation?
It is the process in which many alkene monomers reactto give a polymer.
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What are the optimum conditions for addition polymerisation?
High pressure and a catalyst
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What does addition polymerisation form?
It involves the reaction of unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes) to form a saturated polymer.
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Properties of nylon
Tough, Lightweight, keeps water out and keeps ultraviolet light out.
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GORE-TEX properties
Tough, Lightweight, keeps water out and keeps ultraviolet light out and is breathable.
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What is GORE-TEX made from?
Made from PTFE
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How does PTFE work?
The holes in PTFE are too small for water to pass but are big enough for water vapour to pass through.
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What types of polymers are scientists developing?
polymers that dissolve and biodegradable polymers.
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What are atoms in polymers held by?
Strong convalent bonds
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If there are weak intermolecular forces in a material, is there a higher or lower melting point?
Lower and therefore can be stretched easily.
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If there are strong convalent bonds in a material, is there a higher or lower melting point?
Higher and therefore are more rigid.
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What happens to protein in eggs and meat when cooked?
They permanently change shape.(called denaturing)
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Why is potato easier to digest when cooked?
Because the starch grains swell up and spread out. Also the cell walls rupture resulting in a loss of the rigid structure; a softer texture is produced.
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What is baking powder?
Sodium Hydrogencarbonate
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What happens when Sodium Hydrogencarbonate is heated?
It breaks down (decomposes) to give carbon dioxide.
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What is the word equation for the decomposition of Sodium Hydrogencarbonate
Sodium Hydrogencarbonate ➙ Sodium Carbonate + Carbon dioxide + Water
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What is the balanced equation for the decomposition of Sodium Hydrogencarbonate
2NaHCO₃ ➙ Na₂CO₃ + CO₂ +H₂O
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What are emulsifiers?
They are molecules that have a water-loving head (hydrophilic) and a oil or fat- loving tail( hydrophobic)
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What does an alcohol and a acid make?
Ester and water
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What are esters used for?
Perfumes
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What is the word equation for the making of an ester?
Alcohol + acid ➙ ester + water
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What are the properties that a perfume needs to have?
Evaporate easily, Non-toxic , does not react with water, not irritating and be insoluble in water
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What is a solution?
It is a mixture of a solvent and a solute.
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Give an example of a colloid
Paint
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What is a colloid?
When the particles are mixed and dispersed with particles of liquid( binding medium) but are not dissolved.
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What are emulsion paints and how do they dry?
They are water based paints and dry when the solvent evaporates
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What are oil paints and how do they dry?
They are oil and solvent based. They dry when the solvent evaporates and also the oil is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen
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What are thermochromatic pigments?
They change colour at different temperatures
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Where are thermochromatic pigments used?
thermometers, some cups, electric kettles, babies spoons and bath toys
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What happens when thermochromatic pigments are added to acrylic paints?
It enables the paint to change into a wider range of colours.
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What are phosphorescent pigments?
They are pigments that glow in the dark
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How do phosphorescent pigments glow in the dark?
They absorb and store energy and they release the energy as light over a period of time?
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What are phosphorescent pigments more safer in comparison to?
Radioactive paints
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How is crude oil formed?

Back

It is formed from the remains of plants and animals which died millions of years ago.

Card 3

Front

What is a hydrocarbon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when you burn a fossil fuel?(what is released)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is fractional distillation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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