Chemistry 1

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Do atoms have a positive charge?
No - they have no charge
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What do the groups of the periodic table tell you?
How many electrons the elements has in it's outer shell.
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What do the periods of the periodic table tell you?
How many shells the element has.
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What are the properties of the Noble Gases?
They have a full outer shell, are all in group 0 of the periodic table, stable, unreactive.
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What type of bonding involves giving?
Ionic bonding
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What types of material does Covalent bonding take place in?
2 Non-Metals
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What is Limestone mainly made out of?
Calcium Carbonate.
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When limestone is heated what does it produce?
Calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
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What is produced when calcium carbonate and an acid?
A calcium salt, carbon dioxide and water.
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What is produced when calcium oxide is added to water?
Calcium Hydroxide.
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What can Calcium Hydroxide be used for?
Neutralise acidic soil in fields.
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What is the advantage of using calcium hydroxide over powdered limestone to neutralise fields?
It's faster.
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How do you test carbon dioxide in calcium hydroxide?
Make a limewater solution (add calcium hydroxide to water) and bubble a gas through it. The limwater will turn milky if carbon dioxide is present.
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What causes the limewater to turn milky?
The formation of calcium carbonate.
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How do you make cement out of limestone?
Heat limestone is a kiln with powdered clay.
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How do you make mortar?
Add sand and water to cement.
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How do you make concrete?
Add aggregate and sand to cement.
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What are the 4 main disadvantages of quarrying?
Ruins landscape, causes noise and dust pollution, destroys habitats of animals and birds, lorries that transport it cause pollution and the waste materials produce unsightly tips.
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What are the disadvantages of making cement?
Cement factories create dust which causes breathing problems and enrgy is needed (burning fossil fuels) to create it.
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What is a metal ore?
A rock which contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting the metal from it.
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What is added to an ore so it can be extracted by reduction?
Carbon
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Which metals can be extracted using carbon?
Zinc, Iron, Tin and Copper, Bronze, Silver, Gold and Platinum.
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Why do metals higher in the reactivity series than carbon need to be extracted by electrolysis?
Carbon can only take the oxygen away from metals that are less reactive than it.
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Why is electrolysis more expensive than reduction?
It takes a lot more energy.
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What is smelting?
When an ore is heated in a furnace.
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Apart from extracting, what else can electrolysis be used for?
It can be used to purify metals e.g. copper.
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What is electrolysis?
Where you break down a substance using electricity.
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What is an electrolyte and how does it work?
It is the liquid used in electrolysis which conducts electricity. Electrolytes are often metal salt solutions made from the ore or molten metal oxides. The electrolytes have free ions which make the process work.
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How does purifying metals work using electrolysis?
Electricity is put through a copper anode (positive) and copper cathode (negative). Electrons are pulled off the anode, causing them to go into the solution as Cu2+ ions. These ions near the cathode, gain electrons and turn back into copper atoms.
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What happens to the impurities when purifying metals with electrolysis?
They are dropped at the anode as sludge.
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How does displacement in metals work?
The more reacticve metal bonds more strongly to the non-metal bit of the compound and pushes out the less reactive metal?
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How does Bioleaching work?
Bacteria is used to seperate copper from copper sulfate. The bacteria get energy from the bond between copper and sulphur, seperating the copper from the ore. The leachate produced contains copper which can be extracted by filtering.
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How does Phytomining work?
Plants are grown in copper rich soil. The plants can't use/get rid of the copper so it gradually builds up in the leaves. The plants can be harvested, dried and burned in a furnace. The copper can be collected from the ash left in the furnace.
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What are the disadvantages of these methods?
They're slow.
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What are the uses and properties of copper?
Used in electricity wires. Conducts electricity well and doesn't react with water.
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What are the advantages of mining ores?
Useful products can be made, privdes jobs for local people, brings money into the area so health and transport services can be improved.
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What are the disadvantages of mining ores?
Causes noise, destroys landscape and habitats. Deep mine shafts can also be very dangerous.
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What are the advantages of recycling?
Only takes 15% of the energy that would be used to extract new metal, conserves fossil fuels, is cheap so saves money, cuts down on the amount of rubbish going to landfill sites and conserves metals and there's a finite amount.
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What are the properties of metals?
Strong, conductors of heat and electricity and can be bent into shape (malleable.)
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What are some of the uses of metals?
Used to build bridges, car bonnets, saucepans and electrical wires.
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What are the uses and properties of Aluminium?
Cans. Low density and non-corrosive.
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What are the uses and properties of Titanium?
Used to make planes and replacement hips. Low density, non-corrosive and very strong.
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What are the disadvantages of metals?
Some corrode when exposed to air and water so need to be protected by paint. When metals corrode they lose their strength and hardness. Metal get tired which causes metal fatigue', this leads to metals breaking.
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What is cast iron and what are it's uses?
Iron with 4% carbon in (straight from blast furnace.) It is brittle and is used for ornamental railings.
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What are the properties and uses of Low Carbon Steel? (0.1%)
It is easily shaped and used for car bonnets.
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What are the properties and uses of High Carbon Steel? (1.5%)
It is very hard and inflexible. Used for cutting tools and bridges.
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What are the properties and uses of Stainless Steel? (chromium and nickel added.)
It is corrosion resistant and is used in sinks, cutlery and containers for corrosive substances.
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Why are alloys stronger than metals?
Pure metals have a regular pattern so the atoms can slide over each other. When alloys are made up of metals that have different particle size, it will have an irregular arrangement so the atoms can't slide over each other easily.
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What are the uses of some alloys?
Bronze (copper and tin) is used for medals and statues. Cupronickel is hard and corrosion resistant so makes 'silver' coins. Gold alloys are used to make jewelry as pure gold is too soft. Aluminium alloys make aircraft - low density and strong.
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How is crude oil formed?
From the remains of dead animals and plants which takes millions of years.
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How is crude oil extracted?
Drilling and pumping from the earth.
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What does crude oil consist of?
It is a mixture of hydrocarbons that aren't chemically bonded together.
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How does Fractional distillation work?
Heated crude oil is piped in at the bottom. The oil evaporates and the vaporised oils rise up the column. The various fractions are constantly tapped off at the different levels they condense?
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Is the temperature higher at the top of the bottom of the column?
Bottom.
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What are the fractions of crude oil called?
Hydrocarbons = ALKANES
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What are the first 4 alkanes?
Methane, Ethane, Propane and Buthane
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What is the formula for working out how many carbon/hydrogen atoms are in an alkane?
CnH2n+2
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What are the four trends of alkanes?
The shorter the molecules, less viscous (more runny), lower boiling points, more volatile and more flammable they are.
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Why are crude oil fractions good fuels?
They burn cleanly.
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What are the uses of Crude oil?
Fuel, burned in central heating systems, power stations, generates electricity, used to make plastic etc.
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What are the disadvantages of using crude oil?
It's non-reneweable, oil spills happen when the oil is being transported by tanker and when the oil is burned, it created global warming, dimming and acid rain.
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What is the equation for when hydrocarbons are burned?
hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water vapour
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What happens when there is plenty of oxygen and the fuel burns?
Complete combustion.
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What happens when there's not enough oxygen and fuel burns?
Partial combustion and unburnt fuel, soot and carbon monoxide are released into the air.
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How is Acid rain formed and what does is do?
Made up of Sulphur dioxide. It causes lakes to become acidic so plants and animals die. IT kills trees and damages limestone buildings.
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How can you reduce Acid rain?
Sulphur can be removed from the fuels before they're burnt (this takes more energy and happens by burning the fuel more which produces CO2). Reduce usage of fossil fuels too.
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Why are the levels of Carbon dioxide rising and what does it cause?
Humans burn large amounts of fossil fuels (cars, generating electricity). It causes global warming = flooding, ice caps melting.
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What causes global dimming?
Particles are created from the soot and ash when fossil fuels are burnt. The particles reflect sunlight back into space or create clouds which also reflect sunlight.
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How is Ethanol made and what are the pros and cons of using it?
Produced from fermentation of plants (biofuel). Pros = The CO2 released when burnt is taken in by the plant as it grew so it's 'carbon neutral'. Cons = Engines need to be converted before it can be used to power cars and it isn't widely available.
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How is Biodiesel made and what are the pros and cons of using it?
It is a biofuel produced from vegetable oils. Pros = carbon neutral and engines don't need to be converted. Produces less SO2 than petrol. Cons = we can't make enough of it to replace diesel and it's expensive.
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How is Hydrogen gas make and what are the pros and cons of using it?
You get the hydrogen from the electrolysis of water. Pros = Hydrogen combines with oxygen in the air so it's very clean. Cons = you need a special, expensive engine and hydrogen isn't widely available. It is also hard to store.
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What does Cracking mean?
Splitting up long hydrocarbon chains using a hot catalyst. (Thermal decomposition reaction)
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What are the 4 stages of Cracking? (Long-chain hydrocarbons)
1) The hydrocarbon is heated to vaporise it. 2) The vapour is passed over a powdered catalyst (aluminium oxide) at a temp. of 400-700C. 3) The long chain splits apart on the surface of the specks of catalyst. 4) Alkanes and alkenes produced.
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Why are alkenes unsaturated?
They have double carbon bonds because they aren't attaching onto as many other atoms as possible.
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What is the general formula for Alkenes?
CnH2n
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How do you test for an alkene?
Mix the substance with bromine water and if it decolourises an alkene is present. This is because the double bonds break and form bonds with the bromine.
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How is Ethanol made by hydration and what are the pros and cons?
Ethene is heated with steam and a catalyst. It is cheap and not much is wasted but ethene is produced from crude oil which is non-renewable.
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How can Ethanol be made by fermentation and what are the pros and cons?
Sugar is converted into Ethanol using yeast. (Sugar = Ethanol + carbon dioxide). Pros = needs a lower temp than hydration and simpler equipment. Sugar is a renewable source. But it isn't very concentrated so you will have to distil and purify it.
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What is polymerisation?
When lots of small alkene molecules (monomers) join together using pressure and a catalyst to form polymers.
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What are some uses of polymers?
Plastic bags, Lycra fibre in tights, Memory Foam for beds, Tooth fillings, Waterproof coatings and biodegradable plastics.
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What are the pros and cons of polymers?
Pro's = they make many useful things, it's cheap. Con's = most aren't biodegradable, waste space in landfill sites and are made from crude oil.
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What are the 4 ways oil can be extracted from plants?
Crush and press, centrifuge, solvents and distillation
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What do vegetable oils contain?
Vitamin E and essential fatty acids.
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What are the advantages of using vegetable oils for cooking?
Cooks foods at higher temperature, cooks faster, tastes better but increases the energy in the food.
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What else can be made from vegetable oil?
Biodiesel.
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What are monounsaturated fast and polyunsaturated fats?
Mono = one carbon double bond. Poly = more than one.
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How does Hydrogenation work?
Unsaturated vegetable oils are heated to about 60•c in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The hydrogen reacts with the double carbon bonds.
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What are the properties and uses of hydrogenated oils?
Higher melting points, more solid at room temperature, margarine (partially) which is cheaper than butter, more fatty.
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Is partially hydrogenated vegetable oil good or bad for you?
Bad
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What is an emulsion?
A mix of oil and water.
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If you have more oil in an emulsion is it thicker?
Yes.
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What is an emulsifier and how does it work?
A molecule with a head that is hydrophillic and tail that is hydrophobic.
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What are the pros and cons of emulsifiers?
Pros = Emulsifiers emulsions seperating so gives them a longer shelf life, it makes food lower in fat with a good texture. Cons = some people can be allergic to them.
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What are some Emulsions?
Paint, Milk, Cream, Ice cream, Mayonnaise and Lotion.
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What was Wegener's theory of continental drift?
300 million yer ago there was a Super continent called Pangaea which broke off into smaller chunks that move apart.
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Why was Wegener's theory not accepted?
He didn't have enough evidence and other scientist strongly believed in the land bridge theory.
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How is the Earth built up? (Structures)
It has a crust (thin and is surrounded by the atmosphere.) The mantle has the properties of a solid but it flows very slowly. The core is t the centre of the earth and made up of nickel and iron.
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What happens inside the mantle?
Radioactive decay takes place which produces lots of heat.This causes the mantle to flow in convection currents so the tectonic plates drift.
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What was the Earth like in the early atmosphere?
Full of volcanoes which gave out lots of gas. It was virtually full of CO2 and no oxygen. There may have also been water vapour, methane and amonina.
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How did CO2 reduce in the early atmosphere?
Green plants and algae evolved which took in the CO2 in photosynthesis and produced Oxygen. It was also dissolved in the oceans.
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How was the ozone layer created?
Oxygen created the ozone layer which blocked harmful rays from the Sun which helped complex organisms to evolve.
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What is the Primordial soup theory?
The Earth's early atmosphere was ric in nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia an methane. Lightning struck so these gases reacted to form amino acids which created life.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do the groups of the periodic table tell you?

Back

How many electrons the elements has in it's outer shell.

Card 3

Front

What do the periods of the periodic table tell you?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the properties of the Noble Gases?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of bonding involves giving?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

WillTurnbull1

Oh my god... There are no atoms in the nucleus... Sub atomic particles are present... Please correct to stop confusion

georginaalpaca

AMAZING

georginaalpaca

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Callum Pullen

sub atomic particals in the nucleus. but apart from that well done! 10000 stars

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Chantele Nkomo

Is this AQA paper?

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torecoll

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torecoll

Very good and easy for taking notes! Really useful ***** 5STAR ***** 

FAlaa123

These flashcards cover EVERYTHING. Thanks for making them :)

Purpleunicorn197

The first flash card: There are no atoms in the nucleus, There are sub-atomic particles not atoms

dungy

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ParkChoa

What is produced when calcium carbonate and an acid?

A calcium salt, carbon dioxide and water.

something is missing here???????????????

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Lily_K09

is this for C1

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thanks so helpful !!!

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thanks so helpful !!!

pameladickoxo

Sorry but some of these flashcards are C2

Vibrya08

Very helpful for a quick recap. Thank you! 

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