Chemistry #1

  • Created by: Bertie
  • Created on: 17-05-13 23:50
What is a aqueous solution?
The mixture made by adding a soluble substance to water
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What are Alkalis?
A base that has dissolved in water.It is a solution has a pH number more than 7
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What are acids?
A sour substance which can attack metal, clothing or skin. The chemical opposite of an alkali. When dissolved in water, its solution has a pH number less than 7. Acids are protons donors.
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What are Bases?
The oxide, hydroxide or carbonate of a metal that will react with an acid, forming a slat as one of the products. Bases are proton acceptors
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What does neutral mean?
A solution with a pH value of 7 which is neither acidic nor an alkaline. Alternatively, something that carries no overall electrical charge - neither positively or negatively charged
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How is hydrochloric acid formed?
When hydrogen chloride (HCI) dissolved in water
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What is the equation for hydrochloric acid?
HCI(g) ---(water)--> H+ CI-(aq)
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What happens to acids when they are mixed with water?
The acids form H+ ions. These H+ ions make a solution acidic. Hydrogen chloride also forms chloride ions (CI-)
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What is a state symbol?
The abbreviations used in balancedsymbol equations to show if reactants and products are solid(s), liquid(l), gas(g) or dissolved in water-aqueous solution- (aq)
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What do Alkalis from?
Hydroxide ions (OH-). These hydroxide ions that make a solution alkaline
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What is the sodium chloride solution equation?
NaOH(s) -----(water)---> Na+ (aq) OH- (aq)
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What are indicators?
Are substances which change colour when we add them to acids and alkali's. Litmus paper is a well-known indicator .
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What is the pH scale?
A number which shows how strongly acidic or alkaline a solution is. Acids have a pH value of less than 7. Alkalis have a pH value above 7. A neutral liquid has a pH of 7
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What is a universal indicator (UI)?
A mixture of indicators that can change through a range of colours depending on the pH of a solution. Its coloured matched a pH number using a pH scale. It shows how strongly acidic or alkaline liquids and solutions are
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What are salts?
A salt is a compound formed when some or all of the hydrogen in an acid is replaced by a metal.
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What is neutralisation?
The chemical reaction of an acid with a base in which they cancel out each other, forming salt and water. If the base is a carbonate or hydrogen carbonate, carbon, carbon dioxide is also produced in the reaction
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What is the formula for salt?
acid + metal ---> a salt + hydrogen
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What happens when acids and metals react?
It produces a salt
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What happens when a acid and insoluble base react?
It produces salt and water, the acid and base neutralise
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What is the equation for the neutralisation of acid and insoluble base and the product of salt + water?
acid +base ----> a salt + water
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In terms of acids and salts:
The salts formed when we neutralise hydrochloric acid are always chlorides. Sulfuric acid always makes salts which are sulfrates. Nitric acid always make nitraes
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Name two alternative methods of making salt from solutions
React an acid and an alkali together to form a soluble salt. Make an insoluble salt by reacting solutions of two soluble salts together.
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Explaining the properties of metals
The +ions in a metal's giant structure are held together by delocalised electrons.Their -charge is between the +charged ions holds the ions in place.Thelectrons are able to move freely as they can move and hold metal ions together,theydistort lattice
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What happens when metal lattice are struck?
The metals atom can slip past one another without breaking up the metal's structure
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Why are metals good conductor of heat and electricity?
As the delocalised electrons can flow through the giant metallic lattice. The electrical current and heat are transferred quickly through the metal by free electrons
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What are shape memeoryy alloys?
Mixture of metals which responds to changes in temperature
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What can shape memory alloys be used for?
to hold broken bones together and braces
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What are polymers?
A substance made from very large molecules made of repeating units e.g polyethene
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What do the properties of a polymer depend on?
The monomers used to make it and the conditions we choose to carry out the reaction
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are Alkalis?

Back

A base that has dissolved in water.It is a solution has a pH number more than 7

Card 3

Front

What are acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are Bases?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does neutral mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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