chemistry c4 (for foundation or higher)

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 01-06-13 14:47
what particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
protons and nutrons
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what masses and charges do protons neutrons and electrons have?
protons +1 charge and have a mass of 1, neutrons have a charge of 0 and a mass of 1, electrons have a charge of -1 and a mass of zero
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what is an element?
a substance which is one type of atom
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what are isotopes?
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but a different mass number
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what is a compound?
a compound is a substance made of two or more elements which are chemically combined
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what is an ionic bond?
the force of attraction between oppositly charged ions
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explain how sodium atoms become sodium ions?
each sodium atom loses one electron and then becomes pos charged
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what is covalent bonding?
a shared pair of electrons
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what is an ion?
a charged atom(s)
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what are the three types of bonding?
ionic- between metals and non metals, covalent is between non metals and metallic bonding is metals only
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what are the colour of the flames of lithium sodium and potassium?
L- red S- yellow P- lilac
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What are the properties of group one metals?
they are alkali metals and all have one electron in their outer shell, they all react with air and water so they are stored under oil
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How do the alkali metals react?
they act more vigorusly as you go down the group, lithium reacts gently, and potassium melts and burns- most aggressive
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What is rubidums reaction with water like?
very fast, exothermic and violent
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which transition metal is used as a catalyst in the Haber process?
iron
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what are the group 7 non metals described as?
halogens
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what are chlorine, bromine and iodine at room temperature?
chlorine is a green gas, bromine orange liquid and iodine grey solid
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what are chlorine and iodine used for?
chlorine is used to sterilise water to kill pesticides and to make plastics and iodine is used as an antiseptic to sterilise wounds
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why are the halogens at the top of the group more reactive than those at the bottom?
the outer shell is closer to the pos attraction of the nucleus
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what is a thermal decomposition reaction?
when a substance is broken down into two or more substances by using heat
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what are transition metals?
block of metallic elements, between group 2/3
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what are a few properties of metals?
good conductors, hard, dense, high tensile strength, lustrous, high melting and boiling points
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why do metals have a high melting/boiling point?
because lots of energy is needed to break the strong metallic bonds
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what happens to metals at low temperatures? and what are the disadvantages?
some can become superconductors, the disadvantages are that it is expensive; they only work >-200c
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what are the 4 main sources of water in the UK?
rivers, lakes, reservoirs and aquifers (wells/bore holes)
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how does the chemical industry use water, as well as being essential for drinking/washing..
as a coolant, solvent, and as a raw material
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untreated (raw) water can contain:
insoluble particles, pollutants, microorganisms and disolved salts and minerals
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how do you obtain pure water? as tap water is not pure
water must be distilled (uses a lot of energy/expensive)
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what are the pollutants of water?
nitrates from fertillisers, lead compounds from old pipes and pesticides from spraying crops too near to water supply
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how can sulfates be detected?
barium chloride solution
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when does a precipitation reaction occur?
when an insoluble solid is made from mixing two solutions together
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what is silver nitrate solution used for?
to detect halide ions (ions made by the halogens group 7)
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describe sedimentation, filtration and chlorination..
sedimentation is where the water settles to allow insoluble particles to sink, filtration removes fine particles and chlorination kills microorganisms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what masses and charges do protons neutrons and electrons have?

Back

protons +1 charge and have a mass of 1, neutrons have a charge of 0 and a mass of 1, electrons have a charge of -1 and a mass of zero

Card 3

Front

what is an element?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are isotopes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is a compound?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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