• Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 27-05-13 14:25
Atomic structure
All substances are made from tiny particles called atoms. An atom has a small central nucleus made up of smaller sub-atomic particles called protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by even smaller sub-atomic particles called electrons.
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Atomic number
The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons it contains. All the atoms of a particular element have the same atomic number (number of protons)
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mass number
The mass number of an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons it contains. The mass number of an atom is never smaller than the atomic number. It can be the same, but is usually bigger.
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Full chemical symbols
You need to be able to calculate the number of each sub-atomic particle in an atom if you are given its atomic number and its mass number. The full chemical symbol for an element shows its mass number at the top, and its atomic number at the bottom.
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Electronic structure
The electrons in an atom occupy energy levels. These are also called shells. Each electron in an atom is found in a particular energy level. The lowest energy level (innermost shell) fills with electrons first. Each energy level can only hold a certa
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Ionic bonds
Chemical bonds involve electrons from the reacting atoms. Compounds formed from metals and non-metals consist of ions. Ions are charged particles that form when atoms (or clusters of atoms) lose or gain electrons:
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Covalent bonds
Compounds formed from non-metals consist of molecules. The atoms in a molecule are joined together by covalent bonds. These bonds form when atoms share pairs of electrons.
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Thermal decomposition
calcium carbonate>heat>calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
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Cement, mortar and concrete
Cement is made by heating powdered limestone with clay. Cement is an ingredient in mortar and concrete: mortar, used to join bricks together, is made by mixing cement with sand and water
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transition metals
they are metals, they are good conductors of heat and electricity, they can be hammered or bent into shape easily
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Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace. Iron ores such as haematite contain iron oxide. The oxygen must be removed from the iron oxide to leave the iron behind.
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reduction reactions.
Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called
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Electricity is passed through solutions containing copper compounds, such as copper sulfate. During electrolysis, positively charged copper ions move towards the negative electrode and are deposited as copper metal.
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Some plants absorb copper compounds through their roots. They concentrate these compounds as a result of this. The plants can be burned to produce an ash that contains the copper compounds
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Some bacteria absorb copper compounds. They then produce solutions called leachates, which contain copper compounds.
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Unlike iron, aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon
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The properties of a metal are changed by adding other elements to it. A mixture of two or more elements, where at least one element is a metal
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These are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only, joined together by chemical bonds called covalent bonds. There are different types of hydrocarbon, but most of the ones in crude oil are alkanes.
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Distillation is a process that can be used to separate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids. It works when the liquids have different boiling points. Distillation is commonly used to separate ethanol (the alcohol in alcoholic drinks) from water.
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Fractional distillation
Fractional distillation is different from distillation in that it separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions
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Complete combustion
Fuels burn when they react with oxygen in the air. If there is plenty of air, complete combustion happens. Coal is mostly carbon. During complete combustion, carbon is oxidised to carbon dioxide:
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Incomplete combustion
If there is insufficient air for complete combustion, incomplete combustion (also called partial combustion) happens. Hydrogen is still oxidised to water, but carbon monoxide forms instead of carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas, so adequat
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are fuels produced from plant material, Biodiesel is made from rapeseed oil and other plant oils.
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it is a liquid fuel that burns well. Bioethanol is made by fermenting sugars from sugar cane, wheat and other plants. It cannot be used on its own unless the engine is modified.
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Cracking allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules. Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are heated to vaporise them.
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The products of cracking include alkenes (for example ethene and propene). The alkenes are a family of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula
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Monomers and polymers
Alkenes can be used to make polymers. Polymers are very large molecules made when many smaller molecules join together, end-to-end. The smaller molecules are called monomers.
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Plate tectonics
The Earth's crust and upper part of the mantle are broken into large pieces called tectonic plates. These are constantly moving at a few centimetres each year. Although this doesn't sound like very much,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Atomic number


The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons it contains. All the atoms of a particular element have the same atomic number (number of protons)

Card 3


mass number


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Full chemical symbols


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Electronic structure


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