CHEMISTRY1

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  • Created by: becky.65
  • Created on: 05-05-15 20:49
What is an Isotope?
Atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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In Ionic bonding, what charge does an atom get if it gains an electron?
Negative-as electrons are negatively charged
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What charge do metal atoms and non-metal atoms get in ionic bonding?
Metal ions have a positive charge as they loose an electron. Non-metal ions gain an electron so therefore have a negative charge
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Give two examples of an ionic compound
Potassium Chloride and Sodium Chloride
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Why are the surfaces of the ionic compounds flat?
The oppositely charged ions are in a regular arrangement lattice and the attractive forces between them are very strong
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Why is the melting point for giant ionic structures so high?
There are lots of strong ionic bonds to break and to separate the ions we have to overcome all the electrostatic forces of attraction acting in all directions.
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Why do giant ionic structures conduct electricity in solution but not in solid form?
When we dissolve an ionic compound in water, the lattice is split up by the water molecules. Then the ion are free to move around in the solution formed and they can carry their charge to oppositely charged electrodes in the solution.
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What is covalent bonding?
When non-metals react together and their atoms share pairs of electrons to form molecules.
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Give two examples of simple molecules
Water and Ammonia
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What do simple molecules look like?
Tend to be gases, liquids or low melting point crystals
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Do simple molecules conduct electricity?
In general, they don't conduct electricity because they don't have a charge. However, water does as it has a charge
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Are small molecules soluble?
Most are insoluble because they don't have a charge so they don't dissolve in water, although, ethanol is an exception
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What are the intermolecular forces like in simple molecules?
Each molecule tends to be quite separate from its neighbouring molecules. The force of attraction between the individual molecules in a covalent substance is relatively small. The intermolecular forces are very weak.
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What's another name for giant covalent stuctures?
Macromolecules
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How re the giant lattices held together?
By covalent bonds throughout the lattice
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Give two examples of giant covalent structures?
Diamond and Graphite
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What are giant covalent structures special properties?
They have very high melting and boiling points, insoluble in water as they have no charge and apart from graphite, they are hard and do not conduct electricity
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Why is graphite soft?
The forces holding the layers together are weak so the layers can slide over each other easily
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Why can graphite conduct electricity?
It has a spare outer electron on each carbon atom and this free electron is free to move along the layers if the carbon atoms. The free electrons in carbon atoms are called delocalised electrons
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What are fullerenes?
They form large cage-like structures and tubes, based on hexagonal rings of carbon atoms
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What is Nanoscience?
The study of structures and materials on the scale of nanometres
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What gives nanoparticles their special properties?
They have a very large surface area in comparison to their volume which means they are able to react quickly and make them useful as catalysts
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What are some uses of nanoparticles?
Self-cleaning ovens and windows, titanium dioxide is used in suncream to block ultraviolet light, silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties, direct application of drugs into patients and making materials stronger but lighter
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What are the future developments of nanoparticles?
New catalysts, coatings, computers, nanowires and sensors
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What are the potential risks associated with nanoparticles?
May cause a violent explosion, damage lungs and enter the bloodstream
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In Ionic bonding, what charge does an atom get if it gains an electron?

Back

Negative-as electrons are negatively charged

Card 3

Front

What charge do metal atoms and non-metal atoms get in ionic bonding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give two examples of an ionic compound

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are the surfaces of the ionic compounds flat?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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