Chemistry Year 9

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Solids
Have strong forces of attraction between particles holding them in a fixed position. Particles vibrate about there positions, increase in temperature = more vibrations
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Liquids
Particles free to move around each other but tend to stick together, do not keep a definite shape, particles constantly moving in a random direction
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Gases
Next to no force of attraction between particles. Travel in straight lines and only interact when they collide. The hotter the gas the faster they move
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Atoms
Have a small nucleus surrounded by electrons
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Nucleus
Middle of atom, contains protons and neutrons, Protons-positively charged, Neutrons- no charge = Nucleus has a positive charge
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Electrons
Move around the nucleus, negatively charged, occupy shells around nucleus
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Number of Protons equals number of ...
Electrons. (Atoms have no charge overall)
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What do elements in the same do group have in common?
They both have the same amount of electrons in their outer shell. Group corresponds to number of electrons in outer shell except for transition metals
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What does the nucleus's charge do?
The positive charge of the nucleus attracts electrons holding them in place, further away from the nucleus = less attraction
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Isotope
Have the same amount of protons but a different amount of neutrons
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How to calculate an isotope using RAM and RFM?
Multiply the mass of each isotope by its relative abundance add the numbers together then divide by the sum of the relative abundance
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Covalent bonding
Sharing of a pair of electrons, only share the electrons in the outer shell, creating a full outer shell for both atoms making them :)
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'I lost an electron!' 'Are you sure?'
'Yes I'M POSITIVE'
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Ionic Bonding
Transferral of electrons where atoms lose or gain electrons to form charged particles called ions, Forming because electrons want a full outer shell
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Ionic Compounds have a ...
Regular Lattice Structure eg Sodium Chloride, ionic bonds produce giant ionic structures
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Ionic Compounds
have high melting and boiling points because of the strong attractions between ions and do not dissolve easily
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Diamond
Each carbon atom forms 4 covalent bonds, tetrahedral structure, high melting and boiling points and is insoluble
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Graphite
Each carbon atom forms 3 covalent bonds creating layers which slide so graphite is soft and slippery, layers easily rubbed of because of weak intermolecular forces
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Ionic Substances Properties
High melting and boiling points - Ionic bonds are very strong - a lot of energy is needed to break them. Conductive when liquid - Ions are charged particles, only conduct electricity when a liquid
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Metallic Giant Structure
strong electrostatic forces, sea of electrons so good at conducting electricity and heat can be bent and shaped
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Element
substance made from only one type of atom.
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Compund
substance made from two or more elements that have reacted chemically with each other.
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Mixture
contains two or more substances that have not reacted chemically with each other. A mixture is made of little bits of each substance mixed together.
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Centrifugue
turns fast and heavier particles fall back so separates sediment by centrifugal forces
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Recrystalisation
Used to purify soluble substances
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Filtering
For separating a solid and a liquid
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Crystalisation
Evapoarate half of liquid forming a saturated soloution to crystalise
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Distillation
Separates liquids by boiling point
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Fractional Distillation
Separating liquid from two or more mixtures by boiling point
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Chromomtography
Separating stuff like ink
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Group 1
Have one electron in outer shell so very reactive,they are alkali metals and are kept in oil because of their reactivity they produce hydrogen have low melting point, reactivity increases down the periodic table. Form ionic compounds with Non-metals
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Group 1 and water
reaction is vigorous, moving around of surface fizzing, producing hydrogen makes solution alkali.
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Group 7
Reactivity decreases down the group becoming less reactive but have higher melting and boiling points. Brittle and are poor conductors
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Group 2 and 3
Transition metals are all metals and have high boiling points and are strong and hard. They form ionic bonds with metals
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Group 8 or 0
Noble gases are colourless and do not react
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Particles free to move around each other but tend to stick together, do not keep a definite shape, particles constantly moving in a random direction

Back

Liquids

Card 3

Front

Next to no force of attraction between particles. Travel in straight lines and only interact when they collide. The hotter the gas the faster they move

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Have a small nucleus surrounded by electrons

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Middle of atom, contains protons and neutrons, Protons-positively charged, Neutrons- no charge = Nucleus has a positive charge

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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