Chemistry unit 2 (organic chemistry)

Fossil fuels are...
Formed from dead plants and animals over millions of years under the action of heat and pressure. Fossil fuels are no renewable resources and cannot be replaced in a human lifetime
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Spillage of crude oil causes...
Destruction of habitats, harm of diving birds, eyesores
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What is fractional distillation?
Fractional distillation separates crude oil into simpler mixtures of hydrocarbons called carbons. It is carried out in a fractionating column.
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Crude oil is put in as a gas.the gases move upwards where they condense when the temperature of the column is the same as their boiling point.the further up the column the size of hydrocarbons decreases. The order of fractions tapped off are...
Refinery gases, petrol, naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oil, bitumen.
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What is a homogolous series?
A family of organic compounds that have the same general formula, show similar chemical a gradation in their physical properties and differ by a CH2 unit
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What are the four homogolous series?
Alkanes are relatively unreactive hydrocarbons, alkenes are more reactive hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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What is the general formula for Alkenes?
CnH2n
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What is the general formula for Alcohols?
CnH2n+1OH
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What is the general formula for Carboxylic acids?
CnH2n+1COOH
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What state is each homogolous series at room temperature?
Alkenes and alkanes - gas, alcohols and carboxylic acids - liquid
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What is a functional group?
A reactive group that causes many group that causes many of the reactions of the compounds in the homogolous series.
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Functional groups of each homogolous series are...
Alkanes do not have one and are therefore less reactive. Alkenes is C=C. Alcohols is - OH. carboxylic acids is - C=O and - OH
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Combustion is...
The reaction of a fuel with oxygen producing oxides and releasing heat.
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Complete combustion happens when...
A fuel burns in a plentiful supply of oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water and releasing heat
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Incomplete combustion happens when...
A fuel burns I'm a limited supply of oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sometimes soot.
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Alcohols have a lower percentage of carbon content so...
Burn with a blue flame (and sometimes orange tip). They usually undergo complete combustion.
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What are the two products of combustion?
Water vapour and carbon dioxide
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Test for water...
Cool the gases and a colourless liquid will condense. Add this to anhydrous copper(II) adult which will change from white to blue.
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Test for carbon dioxide...
Bubble the gases through limewater -any carbon dioxide present changes the limewater from colourless to milky.
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What does burning hydrocarbon fuels for heat and the production of electrical energy lead to?
Increased levels of gases such as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. These gases are considered to be polluting because they can cause adverse environmental problems.
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What does the greenhouse effect cause?
Global warming, rising sea levels, melting of the polar ice caps and climate change
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What does acid rain cause?
Defoliation of trees, pollution of rivers which kills fish, destruction of limestone buildings, statues and natural features.
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Alkenes burn with a...
Orange flame flame releasing heat and producing colourless gases
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Test for a C=C bond (saturated vs unsaturated)...
Add to bromine water. If the substance is unsaturated/ an Alkene the mixture will turn from red-brown to colourless. If it is a saturated substance/alkane but also alcohol or carboxylic acid it will cause no change.
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Formation of ethanol from ethene...
Ethene reacts with steam to form ethanol
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What is a polymer?
The long molecule with a repeating unit created by the process of polymerisation, creating a long molecule from many small molecules
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What is addition polymerisation?
The process of adding molecules together to form a polymer as the only product.
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The simple molecule from which the polymer is formed is called the...
Monomer and it is an alkene
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Uses of polymers...
Polythene - plastic bags and bottles PVC - door and window frames
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What is fermentation?
Sugar solution is mixed with yeast in warm, anaerobic conditions. The reaction produces ethanol at a concentration of 12-15% and carbon dioxide. A more concentrated solution can be produced from this solution by fractional distillation.
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Oxidation of alcohol by air...
Ethanol in alcoholic drinks will eventually be oxidised by oxygen in the air to form ethanoic acid
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Oxidation by potassium dichromate...
Both methanol and ethanol will react with acidified (with sulfuric acid) potassium dichromate in a beaker of warm water. A colour change from green to orange is observed.
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Why are carboxylic acids weak acids?
Because they are only partially deionised in water
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Reaction with sodium carbonate (distinguishes carboxylic acids)...
Bubbles of gas are formed (carbon dioxide), the solid disappears and a colourless solution is formed (sodium ethanoate/methanoate in water).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Spillage of crude oil causes...

Back

Destruction of habitats, harm of diving birds, eyesores

Card 3

Front

What is fractional distillation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Crude oil is put in as a gas.the gases move upwards where they condense when the temperature of the column is the same as their boiling point.the further up the column the size of hydrocarbons decreases. The order of fractions tapped off are...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a homogolous series?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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