chemistry unit 2 (different types of chemical reaction)

what are the types of chemical reaction?
There are 3 ways to classify a chemical reaction: energetics, redox,type of reaction. Chemical reactions are either exothermic (give out heat to the surroundings) or endothermic (take in heat from the surroundings).
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what is thermal decomposition?
thermal decomposition is the process in which a substance breaks down when heated. all thermal decomposition reactions are endothermic.
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thermal decomposition of copper(II) carbonate and calcium carbonate...
the most common thermal decompostion reactions are of metal carbonates. when CuCO3 is heated the black solid CuO and CO2 are produced. CaCO3 glows orange on heating and CaO and CO2 are produced.
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what is the lime kiln?
limestone is decomposed into lime in a lime kiln. hot air is blown in to burn the coke and heat CaCO3. the exhaust gases is mainly CO2.
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what is calcium carbonate used for?
limestone is used in agricultre to neutralise acidity in soil water and is alosued s an antacid in the stomach as well as the extraction of iron.
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positive aspects of quarrying...
provides employment, better transport links, landfill sites, a local resource for construction and agriculture and puts money into the local economy.
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negative aspects of quarrying...
destroys habitat, creates an eyesore, causes dust and noise pollution and increases the traffic in the region.
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what is the atmosphere?
'Atmosphere' is the term used to describe the collection of gases that surrounds the earth-79% nitrogen 20% oxygen other gases, such as noble gases, water vapor and 0.03% CO2
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why has the atmosphere changed?
about 2 million years ago the atmosphere was a reducing one but now it is an oxidising one. changes have occured due to several biological and chemical reasons -photosynthesis, carbon forming fossil fuels etc
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explain the theory of continental drift...
the theory suggests that the continents are moving and tht once they were one single landmass. this was proposed because of the shape of the continents, similar rocks and fossils and similar species of animal
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what are tectonic plates?
the earths crust is made up of tectonic plates that float on the mantle and move because of convection current. when thecollide tey can cause earthquakes and create mountains or volcanoes.
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what is a redox reaction?
a redox reaction is once in which oxidation and reduction occur at the same time.
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what is a displacement reaction?
a displacement reaction is once in which a more reactive element will form ions and cause ions of a less reactive element to change to atomd . the two main types are a solid metal reacting with a solution containing metal ions or with a metal oxide
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what is rust?
rust is hydrated iron(III) oxide. when iron is exposed to air (oxygen) and moisture in the air, iron rusts.
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Prevention of rusting(1)...
preventing the surface of the iron coming into contact with air or oxygen by using a protective layer - paint on cars and bridges, oil on tools, plastic Coating on chairs and bikes, plating with another metal eg tin or chrommium
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Prevention of rusting(2)...
A more reactive metal can be put on iron -Bars of Mg are often attached to the sides of ships and oil rigs as they corrode leaving iron intact - sacrificial protection. Iron can be coated in zinc which forms an oxide layer of protection - galvanising
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Prevention of rusting(3)...
An alloy is a mixture of elements, at least one of which is a metal. They have metallic properties and are often stronger and more resistant to corrosion than pure iron so alloying is an option eg stainless steel
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What are the observations of Mg and S when they react with oxygen (oxidation)...
Mg is a grey metal that burns with a bright white light, releasing heat and produces a white ash. Sulfur is a yellow powder which melts to a red liquid and burns with a blue flame releasing heat and forming a colourless pungent gas, SO2
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What happens when copper(II) oxide is reduced with hydrogen?
Black CuO changes to a pink colour, condensation collects inside the tube. This is because CuO loses oxygen in reduction and hydrogen becomes water when it gains oxygen in oxidation. This is a redox reaction.
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Industrial oxidation and reduction reactions...
In the manufacture of iron in the blast furnace iron oxide is reduced to iron when it reacts with CO. In the manufacture of aluminium, aluminium oxide is reduced by electrolysis. In the haber process nitrogen gains hydrogen which is reduction.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is thermal decomposition?


thermal decomposition is the process in which a substance breaks down when heated. all thermal decomposition reactions are endothermic.

Card 3


thermal decomposition of copper(II) carbonate and calcium carbonate...


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Card 4


what is the lime kiln?


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Card 5


what is calcium carbonate used for?


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