Chemistry Unit 1

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  • Created by: Lottie_C
  • Created on: 29-03-16 12:22
single particle of an element
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2 or more different atoms chemically joined (also a molecule)
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2 or more atoms chemically joined
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positive charge, mass 1, nucleus, number of protons dictate what element it is
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no charge, mass 1, nucleus
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negative, mass 1/2000, in shells/levels
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what is the charge of an atom?
no overall charge as number of protons same as number of electrons
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periodic table
each group has same amount of electrons in outer shell, similar properties
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group 0
unreactive because stable arrangements of electrons
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which elements are the most stable?
elements with a full outer shell
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what does the number of electrons in the outer shell determine?
an element's chemical properties
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conversation of mass
during chemical reactions atoms are neither created/destroyed, mass of products equals mass of reactants
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mass number
sum of protons and neutrons
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atomic number
number of protons
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sedimentary rock, main mineral is calcium carbonate, often contains fossils
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purest form of limestone
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how is limestone formed?
chemical decomposition, accumulating corals or minute sea creatures shells
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uses of limestone (9)
construction, building, toothpaste, glass, nutrient, neutralisation, cement, concrete, mortar
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what is calcium hydroxide solution also known as?
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what is the test for carbon dioxide?
It will turn limewater cloudy
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What is calcium hydroxide also known as?
slaked lime
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what is calcium oxide also known as?
quick lime
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give an advantage and a disadvantage of quarrying
creates jobs, destroys habitats
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thermal decomposition
carbonates of reactive metals will not decompose but most other do
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gaining of oxygen
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loss of oxygen
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general properties of metals
conduct heat and electricity, ductile, malleable
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what is titanium's main ore?
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what is aluminium's main ore and how is it extracted?
bauxite and electrolysis
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mineral with enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting
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how can copper be extracted? (5)
smelting, bioleaching, electrolysis, chemical reaction, phytomining
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uses plants to absorb metal compounds and the plants are burned to produce ash that contains metal compounds
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uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds
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positive ions move towards negative electrode
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naturally occurring substances not part of a biological process
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when can carbon be used as a reducing agent?
for metals less reactive than itself
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2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of mining
creates jobs and wealth, environmental damage and waste
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more reactive metal displaces a less reactive one from a compound
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discovery of metals
1st metals discovered because they're naturally occurring and mostly unreactive
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protect metal by painting it to form protective oxide layer
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addition of a few atoms of a different element which disrupts the layers so they can't slide over each other
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recycling metals (3)
reduces landfill, reduces energy used, extracting them uses limited resources
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Iron from a blast furnace
contains about 96% iron, brittle, limited uses, mostly converted to steel (alloy)
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transition metals
centre block of periodic table, useful as structural materials
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why is copper useful?
good conductor of electricity/heat (electrical wiring), can be bent but also hard (pipes or tanks), does not react with water (plumbing)
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why are aluminium and titanium useful?
low density and resistance to corrosion
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crude oil
mixture of many compounds containing hydrocarbons
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molecules made up of hydrogens and carbons, carbon has 4 bonds, hydrogen has 1 bond
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burning hydrocarbons
burn to make water and carbon dioxide and heat energy given off, if insufficient oxygen water and carbon monoxide given off
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catalytic converter
carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, react over catalyst to form carbon dioxide and nitrogen
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catalytic cracking
300-900 degrees celcius, zeolite catalyst/steam, no air, turns long chain alkanes to short chain alkanes/alkenes
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test for alkene
few drops of bromine water added and it will turn colourless if its an alkene or stay brown if alkane
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high energy fuel, large volume needed to store it
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alkenes used for plastic (monomers), double bond opens up so they join together to form polymers
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made by fermentation of yeast (renewable) or hydration of ethene, lower energy content than petrol
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burning fuels causes air pollution
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Fractional distillation
separates hydrocarbons by using different boiling points in fractionating column, gets cooler as you go up the column
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unsaturated oil
carbon-carbon double bonds, liquid
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saturated fats
each carbon has 2 hydrogens, solid, molecules close together
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turning unsaturated fats to saturated fats, add hydrogen, 60 degrees celsius, nickel catalyst
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oil can be extracted from seeds/fruits, edible
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benefits of oils
contain nutrients necessary to health, source of energy
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2 liquids which don't mix (immiscible) can have a substance added to stop them separating
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special molecule with 2 ends, one which likes water and one which doesn't
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olive oil
oil extracted by crushing olives and adding water, pressing the mixture, waiting for it to separate, then collecting oil
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Tests for different fats
adding bromine/iodine to unsaturated oil will make a colourless solution. Adding bromine/iodine to saturated oil will make no change to colour
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steam generated and fed through mixture, oil from mixture evaporates and is carried through steam to condenser where it turns to a liquid
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What did Wegener propose?
plate slowly moving, not believed because no evidence, not a geologist and couldn't explain theory
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Evidence for plate tectonics
similar fossils found on different continents, similar rocks found on edges of different continents, edges of continents seem to fit together
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movement of plates
generally slow, convection currents in mantle due to radioactive processes
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difficult to predict as scientists don't know what's happening below crust and exactly how big/where/when
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occurs when earth crust stretched thin and breaks to allow molten rock/magma to escape, seismometers predict tremors
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Miller and Urey
primordial soup experiment, showed how molecules essential to life produce on Earth, other experiments like this, problems with it
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Early atmosphere
major components were water vapour, carbon dioxide, minor components were methane and ammonia
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today's atmosphere
nitrogen, oxygen, other gases, carbon dioxide
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which planets have a similar atmosphere to Earth's early atmosphere?
Mars and Venus
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Carbon Dioxide
oceans can absorb and release it, sea acts as reservoir for it, sedimentary rocks are a large source of it
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