Chemistry Unit

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What is ionic bonding ?
This can be defined as when an atom of an element loses one or more electrons and donates it to an atom of a different element. The atom that loses electrons becomes positively charged and the atom that gains electrons becomes negatively charged.
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What is covalent bonding ?
This can be shown as where an electron is shared between the atoms and these electrons come from the top energy level of the atoms.
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What is a lone pair ?
This is defined as a non - binding pair of electrons.
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What is metallic bonding ?
This is where it is caused by electrons in the highest energy level of the metal atom to have the ability on becoming delocalised. It gives the metal nuclei a positive charge which is attracted to the negative charge of the delocalised electrons.
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What are delocalised electrons ?
These are electrons that are free to move and they are present in metals and are not associated with a single atom.
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What is electronegativity ?
It can be explained as the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
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What are non - polar molecules ?
It is a molecule where the electrons are distributed evenly throughout the molecule.
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What are polar molecules ?
This is a molecule with a partial positive charge in one part of the molecule and similar with the basis of negative charge in another part due to the uneven electron distribution.
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What are intermolecular forces ?
It is the attraction or repulsion between neighbouring molecules.
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What are London Dispersion Forces ?
They are the weakest intermolecular forces due to the fact it is between nonpolar covalent molecules.
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What are Dipole - Dipole Forces ?
They are slightly stronger but still weak in comparison with a covalent bond as they are permanent forces between polar molecules.
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What is Hydrogen Bonding ?
It's the strongest form of intermolecular forces as they have a special type of dipole dipole bond which results 10% strength of a covalent bond.
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What is a mole ?
It can be defined as the unit of a substance which is equivalent to the number of atoms. E.g. 12g of carbon - 12 is equal for each other.
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What is a titration ?
It is a method of volumetric analysis which is used to calculate the concentration of a solution.
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What is a solution ?
It is a liquid mixture where a solute is dissolved in a solvent.
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What is a standard solution ?
It is a solution of known concentration used in volumetric analysis.
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Define atomic radius ?
It can be defined as where the radius of an atom changes mainly depending on what it is around in and the only way to make a measurement of the distance between the nuclei of two touching atoms.
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If you go across a period from left to right, what happens to the atomic radius ?
It starts to decrease where more protons and electrons are being added, extra electrons that are added seem to be same s and p subshells, extra protons increase nuclear charge and this attracts extra electrons and pulls them closer to the nucleus.
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If you go down a group, what happens to the atomic radius ?
It will start to increase because extra electrons are added to additional shells, the nuclear charge increases, the number of inner shells increases and so the nuclear charge has been shielded.
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What is the trend for ionic radius ?
If you follow down a group, it follows a similar pattern of the trend for atomic radius.This is because extra electrons are added to extra shells, giving it a large size.
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If you go across a period from left to right, what happens to the electronegativity ?
It increases as you go across a group because the bonding pair of electrons have been shielded by the same number of electrons so the number of protons will increase. Group 7 is more electronegative than Group 1.
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If you go down a group, what happens to the electronegativity ?
It decreases as you go down a group because there is more shielding from the inner electrons and the bonding pair of electrons are further away from the nucleus, this acts up a less pull on the bonding pair from the positive charge of the nucleus.
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What is First Ionization Energy ?
It can be defined as the energy needed for one moles of electrons to be removed from one moles of gaseous atoms.
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If you go across a period from left to right, what happens to the First Ionization Energy ?
It increases as it takes more energy to remove an electron because the number of protons increase so the positive charge of the nucleus increases as well in addition. The outer electrons increases as well due to the force of attraction.
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If you go down a group, what happens to the First Ionization Energy ?
It generally falls, there is an increase in the positive charge where the outer electron of an atoms will be further away from the nucleus and has more shielding.
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What is electron affinity ?
It can be defined as the change in energy when one mole of gaseous atoms gain one mole of electrons to form a mole of negative ions.
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If you go across a period from left to right, what happens to the electron affinity ?
When you go left to right across periods of the periodic table, the electrons are added to energy levels to become closer to the nucleus, thus a stronger attraction between the nucleus and its electrons.
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If you go down a group, what happens to the electron affinity ?
As you move down a group on the periodic table, electron affinity decreases because they are further from the nucleus; as a result, they do not have a strong pull on the valence electrons.
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In general, what is the trend for melting point as you go down a group ?
In general, melting point decreases as you go down a group for a metal and increases as you go down a group for a nonmetal.
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In general, what is the trend for melting point as you go to the right in a period or row?
In general, melting point increases as you move towards the middle of the periodic table (transition metals) and decreases as you move away from it.
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In general, what is the trend for boiling point as you go down a group ?
In general, boiling point decreases as you go down a group for a metal and increases as you go down a group for a nonmetal.
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In general, what is the trend for boiling point as you go to the right in a period or row?
In general, boiling point increases as you move towards the middle of the periodic table (transition metals) and decreases as you move away from it.
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What is the term malleable ?
It is a physical property where a material can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets.
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What is the term ductile ?
It is known as a physical property where a material that can be pulled out or drawn, into a long wire.
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What is thermal conductivity ?
The physical property where it is known as the ability in transferring heat.
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What is electrical conductivity ?
The physical property where it has the ability to transfer electrons.
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What is the term reactivity ?
It is the chemical property where it has the ability to combine with other elements, the reactivity decreases as you go left to right along the period of the periodic table.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is covalent bonding ?

Back

This can be shown as where an electron is shared between the atoms and these electrons come from the top energy level of the atoms.

Card 3

Front

What is a lone pair ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is metallic bonding ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are delocalised electrons ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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