Chemistry things i need to remember

Positional Isomer
Same carbon skeleton and same atoms or groups of atoms, atoms or groups of atoms attached onto different carbon atoms.
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Chain Isomer
Same functional groups, different arrnagment of carbon skeleton.
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Functional Group Isomer
Same atoms, arranged into different functional groups.
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Stereoisomers
Same structural formula, atoms are arranged differently in space.
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Structural Isomer
Same molecular formula, different structural formula.
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Thermal Cracking
High temperature (up to 1000 degrees), high pressure (up to 70 atm). Produces lots of alkenes.
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Catalytic Cracking
Uses a zeolite catalyst at a slight pressure and high temperature (around 500 degrees). Mostly produces aromatic hydrcarbons and some alkenes. Using a catalyst cuts costs.
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Complete Combustion
Products are CO2 and H2O
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Incomplete Combustion
Products are CO, C and H2O
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Unburnt hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen
N2 + O2 = 2NO / 2NO2 + O2 = 2NO2
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Catalytic converters remove unburnt hydrocarbons by...
Complete combustion e.g. C3H8 + 5O2 = 3CO2 + 4H2O
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Catalytic converters remove nitrogen oxides by...
2NO = N2 + O2
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Catalytic converters remove carbon monoxide by...
2CO + 2NO = N2 + 2CO2
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Destruction of ozone layer overall equation
2O3 = 3O2
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Properties of polymers
Main carbin is usually non-polar so addition polymers are usually very unreactive. Monomers with a polymer chain have strong covalent bonds but the IF's between polymer chains are much weaker
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Poly(chloroethene)
Covalent bonds between carbon and chlorine are polar. therefore, there are permanent dipole-dipole forces between polymer chains. This make PVC a hard but brittle material. Used in drain pipes and window frames.
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Plasticisers
Adding this makes a polymer mroe bendy. The plasticiser molecules get betwen the polymer chains and puch them apart. This reduces the stregth of the IF's and makes them more flexible. Used in cable insulation and clothing.
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Hydrating alkenes in ethanol production
CH2=CH2 + H2O = CH3CH2OH. Needs a phosphoric acid catalyst, 300 degrees and 60 atm.
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Fermentation of glucose in ethanol production
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2. Needs yeast and 30-40 degrees.
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Oxidising primary alcohols to aldehydes
Gently heating excess alcohol with a controlled amount of oxidising agent to distillation apparatus. The aldehyde will distill off immediately as it had a lower boiling point than then alcohol.
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Oxidising primary alcohols to carboxylic acids
Mix the alcohol with excess oxidising agent and heat under reflux. Heating under reflux means that you can increase the temperature of an organic reaction without losing any volatile solvents, reactants or products.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Same functional groups, different arrnagment of carbon skeleton.

Back

Chain Isomer

Card 3

Front

Same atoms, arranged into different functional groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Same structural formula, atoms are arranged differently in space.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Same molecular formula, different structural formula.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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