Chemistry test 12.09.17

?
What are the three states of matter?
Solid, liquid and gas
1 of 45
Properties of a solid
Fixed shape, close together, tightly bonded, they do not flow, hold the same volume, strong forces and only vibrate. Eg. Spoon
2 of 45
Properties of a liquid
No fixed shape, do not have a fixed volume, weak forces, cannot be compressed, take shape of the container, flow easily. E.g water
3 of 45
Properties of a gas
Can be compressed, no forces holding together, no fixed volume, flow very freely. E.g oxygen
4 of 45
How to change state of matter
Giving or removing energy
5 of 45
Melting point
The temperature at which solids become liquid
6 of 45
Boiling point
The temperature at which liquids become gas
7 of 45
Condensing
The temperature at which gas becomes liquid
8 of 45
Freezing point
The temperature at which liquids become solid
9 of 45
Element
Consist of only one type of atom and cannot be broken down any further. eg. hydrogen
10 of 45
Mixture
Consist of two or more different elements and are not chemically bonded. eg. sand and water
11 of 45
Compound
Consist of two or more different elements and are chemically bonded. eg. NaCl (table salt)
12 of 45
Filtration
Used for insoluble solids in a liquid. eg. sand and water
13 of 45
Distillation
Used to separate liquids mixed together. eg. ethanol and water
14 of 45
Crystalisation
Separating soluble solids from water in a bunsen burner.
15 of 45
Saturation point
When no more soluble solid can dissolve in the solvent
16 of 45
How filtration works
An insoluble substance cannot pass through filter paper and it is used to remove solids before waste water is purified.
17 of 45
How crystallisation works
The solution becomes too concentrated for all the solid to remain dissolved and it is used to obtain pure crystals of compounds used in medicine.
18 of 45
How simple distillation works
The liquid evaporates but the solid does not and it is used to obtain fresh water from seawater.
19 of 45
How chromatography works
One is more attracted to a solid, such as paper, so it does not travel as far as the other and it is used to identify the dyes used to colour foods.
20 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Democritus
Democritus; atoms are tiny spheres that make up everything and can't be broken down.
21 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Dalton
Dalton; agreed with Democritus and said that atoms are indivisible and indestructible.
22 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Thomson
Thomson:discovered the electron by experimenting and created the plum pudding model
23 of 45
Plum pudding model
Theory that atoms are balls of positive charge with negative electrons embedded withing them
24 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Geiger and Marsden
Gold foil experiment; they fired alpha particles at a thin piece of gold foil. Most of the particles went through( as expected) but a few went off course and some even bounced back.
25 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Rutherford
Rutherford; designed the gold foil experiment and explained that atoms are made up of empty space. He theorised that nearly all of the mass was in a dense positive nucleus and that negative electrons orbit around it.
26 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Bohr
Improved Rutherford's model and added that electrons only exist in energy levels called shells.
27 of 45
Evolution of the atomic structure: Rutherford pt.2
He realised that the positive alpha particles were being repelled by a tiny concentration of positive energy (nucleus) in the atom.
28 of 45
What makes elements different
The number of protons they have; tells us the identity.
29 of 45
What part of the atom is involved when making compounds?
The electrons
30 of 45
What is an isotope?
The same atomic number, different mass number. Different amount of electrons.
31 of 45
Electronic configuration
2,8,8,18
32 of 45
What is a ion?
An atom that has lost or gained electons
33 of 45
Metal properties
Conducts electricity, high density, magnetic, hard, strong, high melting point, alkaline
34 of 45
Non-metal properties
Does not conduct electricity, low density, low melting point, acidic
35 of 45
Where are the halogens?
Group seven
36 of 45
Best catalysts
Transition metals
37 of 45
When atoms lose and electron what is their charge?
+1 because, prior to taking an atom away the atom was neutral so taking one electron would make it positive
38 of 45
When atoms gain an electron what is their charge?
-1 because, prior to adding an electron the atom was neutral
39 of 45
METALS CANNOT GAIN ELECTRONS. They cannot become negative ions (their mum said so.
What's so special about metals and ions?
40 of 45
What is a cation?
when metals lose electrons and gain a positive charge
41 of 45
What is an anion?
When non-metals gain electrons to gain a negative charge.
42 of 45
What's so special about Group 4?
Cannot form ions.
43 of 45
What are the exceptions when it comes to forming ions?
Group 4, Boron and Nobel gases
44 of 45
Why do atoms form ions?
To gain a full, and therefore, stable outer shell.
45 of 45

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Properties of a solid

Back

Fixed shape, close together, tightly bonded, they do not flow, hold the same volume, strong forces and only vibrate. Eg. Spoon

Card 3

Front

Properties of a liquid

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Properties of a gas

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How to change state of matter

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Atoms resources »