Chemistry- Polymers

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 08-02-17 09:14
What is a polymer?
A large molecule made up of smaller units called monomers
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What happens in a polymerisation reaction?
Thousands of small molecules join to give one large molecule, a polymer
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What does synthetic mean?
Something that was made in a factory
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In addition polymerisation...
Double bonds in molecules break and they add on to each other
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What is necessary for addition polymerisation?
Presence of double bonds
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What monomers join in condensation polymerisation?
Two different types each with different functional groups
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What happens during condensation polymerisation?
A small molecule is eliminated
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What two chemicals could you react to make nylon?
1, 6-diaminohexane and hexan-1,6-dioyl chloride
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What linkage does nylon have?
Amide linkage
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What has the same linkage as nylon?
Proteins
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What is nylon called?
A polyamide
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What two chemicals could you react to make terylene?
benzene-1,4, dicarboxylic acid and ethane-1,2 - diol
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What linkage does terylene have?
Ester linkage
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what is terylene called?
Polyester
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Synthetic polymers are usually called...
Plastics
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What does plastic mean?
Can be moulded into shape without breaking
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Most plastics are made from chemicals found in...
the naphtha fraction
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Describe the properties of plastics.
Don't conduct electricity or heat, are unreactive, light, don't break when dropped, strong and don't catch fire
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In what conditions is low density polythene made?
50 degrees and 3-4 atmospheres
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What happened to polythene at 200 degrees and 2000 atmospheres?
Its chains start to branch and you get low density polythene
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What are the uses of low density polythene?
Plastic bags, gloves, clingfilm
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What are the uses of high density polythene?
Mugs, bowls, chairs, dustbins
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What re the uses of polychloroethene? (PVC)
water pipes, covering for electrical cables
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What are the uses of polypropene?
Crates and ropes
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What are the uses of polystyrene?
Fast food cartons, packaging, roof insulation
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What are the uses of teflon?
Coating on frying pans to make them non-stick, fabric protector, windscreen wipers
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What are the uses of nylon?
Ropes, fishing nets, curtains, tents
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What are the uses of terylene?
clothing
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What does non-biodegradable mean?
Does not break down or rot away in soil
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What problems does polythene cause?
It chokes animals, clogs app drains and cause flooding, collects in rivers and blocks way for fish, blows into trees and cause visual pollution
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What are plastics recycled for?
To make new plastics, to make small molecules which can be polymerized again, some are burned and the heat is used to provide electricity
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Why is only a small % of plastics recycled?
There are so many types of plastics that it is difficult to separate them. Burning plastics can produce poisonous gases so it is dangerous
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What does biodegradable mean?
It contains additives such as starch which bacteria can feed on
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What does photodegradable mean?
It contains additives which break down in sunlight
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What type of reaction is the formation of maltose/starch from glucose?
Condensation
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How to carry out hydrolysis of carbs in the lab?
Heat with dilute hydrochloric acid
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How to carry out hydrolysis of proteins in the lab?
Boil with 6 M hydrochloric acid for 24 hours
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens in a polymerisation reaction?

Back

Thousands of small molecules join to give one large molecule, a polymer

Card 3

Front

What does synthetic mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In addition polymerisation...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is necessary for addition polymerisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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