Chemistry paper one

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what is the charge of a proton?
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true or false ? elements contain more than one type of atom
false they only contain atoms with the same atomic number
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give the formula for carbon dioxide
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give the formula for sodium carbonate
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balance this equation Mg+O2 = MgO
2Mg+O2= 2MgO
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What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
mixtures are not chemically bonded like compounds
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what is the name of the pattern formed from carrying out paper chromatography?
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Which method of serration is useful to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid?
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Give the name of a method to separate a soluble solid from a liquid
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which method of distillation would you use to separate liquids with similar boiling points?
fractional distillation
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who discovered that the plum pudding model was wrong?
Ernest rutherford
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who first devised an experiment that proved the existence of the neutron?
James chadwick
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What is the electronic structure of sodium?
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why did mendeleev leave the gaps in his table of elements?
to make sure elements with similar properties stayed in the same groups
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How are the group number and the number of electrons in the outer shell of an element related?
the group number is the amount of electrons that are on the outer shell
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what kind of ions do metals form?
positive ions
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Where are the non metals on the periodic table?
to the right of the periodic table
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Give three properties which are specific to transition metals
they can have more than one ion, often coloured , make good catalysts
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State three trends as you go down group 1
increasing reactivity , lower melting and boiling points, higher relative atomic mass
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State the products of the reaction of sodium and water
sodium hydroxide , hydrogen
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state the differences between group 1 and the transition metals for the following properties hardness , reactivity , melting points
group one are more reactive then the transition metals also they are less hard then the transition metals and have much lower melting points
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How do the boiling points of halogens change as you go down the group from fluorine to astatine?
as you go down the elements have higher boiling points
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what is the charge of the ions that halogens form when they react with metals?
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predict whether iodine is displaced by chlorine in a solution of potassium iodide
chlorine will displace it as its more reactive
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what is the trend in boiling point as you go down group 0?
as you go down the boiling point increases due to an increase in the number of electrons
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what type of ion do elements from each of the following groups form A) group 1 B) group 7
A)positive ions B)negative ions
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describe how an ionic bond forms
a metal and non metal react together the metal atom loses electrons to form a positively charged ion and the non metal gains these electrons making it a negatively charged ion
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describe the structure of a crystal of sodium chloride
it has a giant ionic lattice the Na+ and Cl- are held together in a regular lattice
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list the main properties of ionic compounds
high melting and boiling points, dissolve easily once they melt the have ions that are free to move
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describe how covalent bonds form
when non metal atoms bond together they share pairs of electrons
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Explain why simple molecular compounds typically have low melting and boiling points
weak force of attraction between between the molecules
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describe the structure of a polymer
lots of small units linked together to form a long molecule
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give three examples of giant covalent substances
diamond, graphite , silicon dioxide
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explain why graphite can conduct electricity
because each carbon atom has a free electron that can move
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explain how fullerenes could be used to deliver drugs into the body
because the structure from around another atom or molecule which is then trapped inside
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what is metallic bonding?
the strong attraction between closely packed positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
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explain why alloys are harder than pure metals
the layers of metal atoms make it more difficult for them to slide over each other this makes them harder
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name the three states of matter
solid , liquid , gas
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what is the state symbol of an aqueous substance?
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what is the name of the temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas?
boiling point
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what is nano science ?
investigating the uses and properties of nanoparticles
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give three uses of nanoparticles
make catalysts , cosmetics, surgical masks
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How do you calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of a substance ?
all the relative atomic masses of all the atoms in the substance added together
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state the value of the avogadro constant
6.02 times 10 to the power of 23
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what is the formula that relates the number of moles of a substrate to its mass and Mr?
number of moles = mass / relative formula mass
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what does the conservation of mass mean?
during a chemical reaction no atoms are destroyed or created this means no mass is lost or gained
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suggest why the mass of a reaction vessel might decrease during a reaction
because one of the products is a gas
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explain what is meant by the term limiting reactant
if one reactant is completely used up before the rest then the reaction will stop that reactant is called limiting
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what is concentration ?
how crowded things are
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give the equation for working out the concentration of a solution in g/dm3
mass of solute / volume of solvent
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give the equation for calculating the atom economy of a reaction
relative formula mass of desired products , relative formula mass of all reactants times the answer by 100
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whats the atom economy of a reaction that only produces one product?
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give the equation for calculating the percentage yield
mass of product actually made / maximum theoretical mass of product then times your answer by 100
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give three reasons why percentage yield is always less than 100%
not all reactants react to make a product , there might be side reactions, you loses some product when you separate it from the reaction mixture
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state whether the following pH values are acidic , alkaline or neutral A) 9 B)2 C)7 D)6
A) alkali B) acid C) neutral D) acid
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give the general word equation for the reaction between an acid and a base
acid + base = salt+ water
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whys shouldn't you use universal indicator as an indicator in a titration?
because you need to see a sudden colour change
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Name two suitable indicators for a titration and state their colours when in acidic or alkaline solution
litmus - blue in alkalis red in a acids , methyl - yellow in alkalis red in acids
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what is a strong acid?
acids that completely ionise in water and all acid particles dissociate to release H+ ions
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is zinc more or less reactive than iron?
more reactive
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what is the general equation for the reaction of a metal with an acid?
acid + metal = salt + hydrogen
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will copper react with water ?
no because it not very reactive
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what product forms in the oxidation of magnesium by oxygen?
magnesium oxide
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in terms of electrons give the definition of oxidation
oxidation is the loss of electrons
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during electrolysis which electrode are the positive ions attracted to ?
the anode
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why can ionic solids not undergo electrolysis ?
because the ions are in fixed positions and won't move
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do ions get reduced or oxidised at the anode
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if halide ions are present in an aqueous solution of an ionic solid will oxygen gas be released?
no molecules of chlorine bromine or iodine will be formed
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in an exothermic reaction is heat transferred to or from the surroundings?
transfers energy to its surroundings
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name two different types of reaction which are exothermic
burning fuels (combustion), neutralisation reactions
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define what is meant by the term endothermic reaction
a reaction that takes in energy from the surroundings
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write down the equation for the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
CaCO3 + heat = CO2 + CaO
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what is the activation energy of a reaction ?
minimum amount of energy required for the start of reaction
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is a bond breaking an exothermic process?
no its endothermic
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is bond forming an exothermic process ?
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what is an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell?
a liquid that contains ions which react with the electrodes
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give two factors that affect the voltage produced by an electrochemical cell
type of electrodes , difference in reactivity
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what is a battery?
two or more cells together in series
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explain why non rechargeable batteries eventually lose their charge
because the reactants get used up
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what is a fuel cell ?
an electrical cell thats supplied with fuel and oxygen
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name an electrolyte commonly used in hydrogen oxygen fuel cells
potassium hydroxide
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


true or false ? elements contain more than one type of atom


false they only contain atoms with the same atomic number

Card 3


give the formula for carbon dioxide


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


give the formula for sodium carbonate


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


balance this equation Mg+O2 = MgO


Preview of the front of card 5
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