Chemistry Paper 2 9-1

What is activation energy?
The minimum amount of energy needed to react
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What does a rate of reaction depend on?
Temperature, concentration of solution or pressure of a gas, surface area, catalyst.
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What happens when temperature is increased?
Particles move faster because they have more energy, so more frequent collisions will happen and more will be successful
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What happens when concentration or pressure is increased?
More particles in the same volume so more frequent collisions
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What happens when you decrease the temperature at equilibrium?
The equilibrium would move to in the exothermic direction to produce more heat. There would be more products for the exothermic reaction
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What happens when you increase pressure or concentration at equilibrium?
If you increase the pressure or concentration, the equilibrium tries to reduce it so it moves in the direction where there are fewer particles
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What is a hydrocarbon>
A compound that is formed from carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
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What is an alkane?
Homologous series: saturated compunds - each carbon atom forms four single covalent bonds
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What are the first four alkanes?
Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane
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What is the alkane's general formula?
C(n)H(2n+2)
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The shorter a carbon chain...
The less viscous. The more volatile. The more flammable
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What is crude oil?
A fossil fuel. Formed from the remains osf plants and animals that died millions of years ago and were buried in mud. Non-renewable (finite). A mixture of lots of different hydrocarbons.
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How does ffractional distillation happen?
Oil heated until turned into gas, gases enter a fractionating column. It is hotter at the bottom, cooler towards the top. Longer hydrocarbons have higher melting points. Shorter hydrocarbons have lower melting points and are at the top of the column.
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Name two uses of crude oils
Transport. Feedstock to make new compounds (polymers)
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What is cracking?
A thermal decomposition reaction which breaks down molecules by heating them
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Why is cracking used?
Longer alkane molecules produced from fractional distillation are turned into smaller ones by cracking
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What are alkenes?
Double bond between two carbon atoms in a chain. Unsaturated. Reactive
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What is the general formula of alkenes
C(n)H(2n)
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What are the first four alkenes?
Ethene, Propen, Butene, Pentene
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Alkenes and combustion?
In oxygen, combust completely, produce water and carbon dioxide. In air, incomplete combustion, produces water, carbon (dioxide and monoxide)
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Results of incomplete combustion
Smoky, yellow flame and less energy is released.
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Standard equation for incomplete combustion of alkenes?
Alkene + oxygen ---> carbon + carbon monoxide + carbon dioxide + water
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How are polymers formed?
Formed when monomers join together from a process called polymerisation. Plastics are usually made up of polymers; monomers are usually alkenes
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What is needed for polymerisation?
High temperatures and a catalyst
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What are addition polymers?
Double covalent bond. Unsaturates monomer molecules open up their double bonds to join together to form polymer chains
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General formula of alcohol?
C(n)H(2n+1)OH
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First four alcohols
Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol
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Alcohols and combustion?
Alcohols are flammable so undergo complete combustion in air to produce carbon dioxide and water.
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Alcohols reactions?
Methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol are soluble in water and their solutions have a neutral pH. React with sodium and produce hydrogen. Alcohols can be oxidised by reacting with oxygen to produce carboxylic acid.
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Fermentation?
Uses an enzyme in yeast to convert sugars into ethanol (aqueous) and carbon dioxide. Happens fastest at 37oC in slightly acidic conditions and under anaerobic conditions.
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First four carboxylic acids?
Methanoic Acid Ethanoic Acid Propanoic Acid Butanoic Acid
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General formula for carboxylic acids?
C(n)H(2n+1)OOH
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First four carboxylic acids in their formulas?
HCOOH CH3COOH C2H5COOH C3H7COOH
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What do carboxylic acids form?
Salt, water and carbon dioxide. Salts formed end in -anoate (methanoic acid forms methanoate, ethanoic acid forms ethanoate).
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Example for ethanoic acid?
ethanoic acid + sodium carbonate ---> sodium ethanoate + water + carbon dioxide.
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Name a naturally occurring polymer.
Proteins in amino acids, which are called polypeptides via condensation polymerisation.
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How can you test for chlorine gas?
Bleaches damp litmus paper and turns it white. (if blue litmus paper is used, it may turn red for a moment as it is acidic)
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How can you test for the presence of oxygen?
Oxygen will relight a glowing splint.
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How can you test for the presence of carbon dioxide?
Bubbling carbon dioxide through an aqueous solution of limewater causes the solution to turn cloudy.
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What ions are there for a flame test?
Lithium ions Sodium ions Potassium ions Calcium ions Copper ions
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Lithium ions?
Crimson flame.
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Sodium ions?
Yellow flame.
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Potassium ions?
Lilac flame.
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Calcium ions?
Orange-red flame.
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Copper ions?
Green flame.
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Calcium precipitate?
White.
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Copper (II) precipitate?
Blue.
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Iron(II) precipitate?
Green.
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Iron(III) precipitate?
Brown.
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Aluminium precipitate?
White at first but redissolves to form colourless.
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Magnesium precipitate?
White.
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Early earth atmosphere?
Mostly made up of carbon dioxide with no oxygen. Volcanic activity released nitrogen as well as water vapour and small amounts of methane and ammonia.
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What happened when the water vapour condensed?
It formed the ocean.
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What happened to carbon dioxide (how was it removed from the atmosphere)?
It dissolved in the oceans before it then went through a series of reactions to form carbonate precipitates that formed sediments on the seabeds.
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Green plants and algae?
Evolved and absorbed some of the carbon dioxide so they could carry out photosynthesis.
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Fossils and sedimentary rocks?
When plants, plankton and marine animals die, they fall to the seabeds and get buried by layers of sediment. Over millions of years they get compressed and form fossils, trapping carbon inside them.
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Greenhouse gases?
Act like an insulating layer. Do not absorb short wavelength radiation from the sun, but absorb long wavelength radiation that is reflected from the earth. They re-radiate it in all directions.
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What is a carbon footprint?
A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released over the full life cycle of something.
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Why is it hard to reduce carbon footprints?
Renewable energy is expensive. Carbon capture and storage is still in development. Gov. worried about economic growth.
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Carbon monoxide problems?
Can stop blood from carrying oxygen around the body as it binds to the haemoglobin. Doesn't have a colour or a smell so is hard to detect.
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What is corrosion?
Where metals react with substances in their environments and are gradually destroyed.
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What does iron need for rust to occur?
Iron needs to be in contact with both oxygen and water.
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Equation for the formation of rust?
iron + oxygen + water ------> hydrated iron (III) oxide
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does a rate of reaction depend on?

Back

Temperature, concentration of solution or pressure of a gas, surface area, catalyst.

Card 3

Front

What happens when temperature is increased?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when concentration or pressure is increased?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens when you decrease the temperature at equilibrium?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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