Chemistry - Key concepts (paper 1&2)

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What is a base?
An alkali which reacts with an acid to form a salt and water only.
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Name three bases
Copper oxide, copper hydroxide, magnesium oxide (anything with oxide/hydroxide)
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Name three strong acids
Hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
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What is a salt?
Any chemical compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base. The hydrogen is replaced by the metal.
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What are isotopes?
Different forms of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
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What is the relative atomic mass?
The average mass of one atom of the element. It is always the bigger number in the periodic table.
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How do you work out the relative atomic mass (Ar) from isotopic abundances?
Multiply each relative atomic mass by its isotopic abundance, and add up the results. Then divide by the sum of the abundances/
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What is ionic bonding?
When a metal and a non-metal react together. The metal atom loses electrons to form a cation and the non-metal gains these electrons to form an anion. These oppositely charged ions are strongly attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.
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What is the structure of an ionic compound?
Regular lattice structure
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Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?
Because it takes a large amount of energy to overcome the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the ions.
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What happens when they dissolve in water?
The ions separate and are free to move in the solution, so they can carry an electric current.
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What is a covalent bond?
A strong bond that forms when a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms.
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Simple molecular substances are made up of...
molecules containing a few atoms joined by covalent bonds.
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Substances containing covalent bonds usually have...
simple molecular structures.
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What are the atoms within the molecules held by?
Very strong covalent bonds, and the attraction between these molecules are very weak.
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Why are the melting and boiling points very low?
Because the molecules are easily parted due to their weak intermolecular forces.
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What is metallic bonding?
How particles in a metal are held together
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Metals consist of a ______ structure
Giant
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What kind of forces of attraction is there between the positive metal ions and the shared negative electrons?
Strong electrostatic forces of attraction
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The electrons in the outer shell of the metal atoms are ________
Delocalised
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List the physical properties of metals.
High melting + boiling points, not soluble, more dense than non-metals, layers of atoms can slide over each other - malleable, conduct electricity + heat
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name three bases

Back

Copper oxide, copper hydroxide, magnesium oxide (anything with oxide/hydroxide)

Card 3

Front

Name three strong acids

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a salt?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are isotopes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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