CHEMISTRY - Organic Reactions

Organic Reactions
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Functional Group
an atom or group of atoms that give organic compounds their characteristic reactions
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Homologous Series
a 'family' of organic compounds with the same functional group
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Complete Combustion of Alkenes
ethene + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water / products = carbon dioxide + water (but they tend to burn with a smokier flame compared to alkanes as incomplete combustion takes place)
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Addition Reactions of Alkenes
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Reaction with Halogens
ethene + bromine --> dibromoethene
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Reaction with Hydrogen
butene + hydrogen --> butane / product = alkane (must take place at 60'C with a nickel catalyst)
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Reaction with Steam
ethene + steam ethanol / product = alcohol (the reaction is reversible and must take place in the presence of a catalyst)
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Functional Groups - Alcohol, Carboxylic Acid, Ester
Alcohol = -OH / Carboxylic Acid = -COOH / Ester = -COO-
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Reactions of Alcohols
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Producing Ethanol
1. fermentation - glucose --> ethanol + carbon dioxide (in the presence of yeast) / 2. ethene + steam --> ethanol (used in industry)
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Alcohol Reactions - Combustion
ethanol + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water / used as a biofuel in cars because it burns cleanly (with a blue flame)
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Alcohol Reactions - Sodium
sodium + ethanol --> sodium ethoxide + hydrogen / the reaction produces hydrogen but is less vigorous than when the sodium reacts with water
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Alcohol Reactions - Oxidisation
1. alcohols can be oxidised through chemical oxidising agents like potassium dichromate / alcohol + potassium dichromate --> carboxylic acid / 2. some microbes in the air can oxidise ethanol to ethanoic acid (turning alcoholic drinks sour)
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Carboxylic Acids - Properties
dissolve in water to produce acidisc solutions - have th properties of all typical acids i.e. they fizz when they are added to a carbonate because they produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water
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Carboxylic Acids - Properties 2
different to other acids because they react with alcohols in the presence of a catalyst to produce esters - they are also weak acids so don't ionise completely
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Producing Esters
carboxylic acid + alcohol --> ester + water (in the presence of a strong acid catalyst)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

an atom or group of atoms that give organic compounds their characteristic reactions

Back

Functional Group

Card 3

Front

a 'family' of organic compounds with the same functional group

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

ethene + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water / products = carbon dioxide + water (but they tend to burn with a smokier flame compared to alkanes as incomplete combustion takes place)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

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Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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