Chemistry OCR, C1

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What is the atmosphere made up of?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and other
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How are gases and other particulates released into the atmosphere?
by human activity or natural processes such as volcanoes
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How was Earth's early atmosphere formed?
created by volcanic activity and consisted mainly of carbon dioxide and water vapour. Water vapour condensed to form oceans and simple photosynthetic organisms developed adding oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
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How was carbon dioxide removed from Earth's early atmosphere?
photosynthesis, dissolving in oceans and forming sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels
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How has human activity changed the composition of the atmosphere?
small amounts of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, increased amounts of carbon dioxide and particulates have been added
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What is coal mainly made up of?
carbon
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What are petrol, diesel fuel and fuel oil mainly made up of?
hydrogen and carbon compounds, hydrocarbons
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What happens when fuel burns?
atoms of carbon and hydrogen, from the fuel, combine with atoms of oxygen from the air to produce carbon dioxide and water
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What is oxidation?
when a substance chemically combines with oxygen. Combustion reactions involve oxidation
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What is reduction?
the loss of oxygen
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When do fuels burn more rapidly?
in pure oxygen
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What is combustion?
a chemical reaction that occurs when a fuel reacts with oxygen
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What is complete combustion?
occurs when there is enough oxygen present for a fuel to burn completely
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What is incomplete combustion?
occurs when fuel is burned and there is not enough oxygen
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What is the conservation of mass?
in a chemical reaction, the number of atoms of each element must be the same in the products and in the reactants
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How is sulfur dioxide produced?
when fuel containing sulfur is burned
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What pollutants are formed when fossil fuels are burned?
carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and nitrogen oxides
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How is nitrogen dioxide formed?
nitrogen monoxide is formed during the combustion of fuels in air and is then oxidised to get nitrogen dioxide
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What pollutants react with water and oxygen to produce acid rain?
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide
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How can pollution caused by power stations be reduced?
using less electricity, using alternative renewable sources and removing sulfur dioxide and particulates from flue gases by wet scrubbing
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What is the process of wet scrubbing?
using a spray of calcium oxide and water or sea water
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How can pollution caused by vehicles be reduced?
having more efficient engines, using low sulfur fuels, using catalytic converters, using more public transport and having legal limits to exhaust emissions
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What is the only way of producing less carbon dioxide?
burning less fossil fuels
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are gases and other particulates released into the atmosphere?

Back

by human activity or natural processes such as volcanoes

Card 3

Front

How was Earth's early atmosphere formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How was carbon dioxide removed from Earth's early atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How has human activity changed the composition of the atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Francois01

thank you for these helpful cards! I've recommended to my friends

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