Chemistry Model Definitions

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  • Created by: Tommy1boy
  • Created on: 20-02-16 15:30
Relative Atomic Mass
Average mass of an atom of an element on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12
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Relative Isotopic Mass
Mass of an atom of an isotope of an element on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12
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Relative Molecular Mass
Averagemass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12
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Relative Formular Mass
Average mass of a formular unit on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12
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First Ionisation Energy
The enery needed to remove 1 electron from the outer shell from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of a gaseous 1+ ion
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Second Ionisation Energy
The energy needed to remove 1 election from the outer shell from each 1+ ion in 1 mole of gaseous ions to form 1 mole of gaseous 2+ ion
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Theoretical Yield
Th mass of a desired product that should be formed in a chemical reaction
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Actual Yield
The mass of a desired product that is formed in a chemical reaction
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Molecualr Formular
The actual number of atoms in a molecule
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Emperical Formular
The smallest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound
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Atom Economy
A measure of the proportion of reactand atoms that become part of the desired product in the balanced chemical equation
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Electronegativity
The ability to atract the bonding electrions in a covalent bond
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Bond Enthalpies
The energy needed to break a covlent bond
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Mean Bond Enthalpies
The average energy needed to break a covalent bond over a range of compounds
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Enthalpy Change
The heat energy transferred in a reaction at constant pressure
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Standard Enthalpty Change of Formation
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions with reactants and products all in their standard states
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Stand Enthalpty Change of Combustion
The enthalpty change when 1 mole of a substance is completely burned in oxygen under standard conditions with reactants and products all in their standard states
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Hess's Law
The total enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route taken
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Activation Energy
The minimum amount of kinetic energy particles needed to react
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Collision Theory
A reaction will not take place between two particles unless they collide in the right direction and with the activation energy
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Catalyst
Increases the rate of reaction by providing an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy. The catalyst remains chemically unchanged
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Equilibrium Constant
The ratio worked out from the concentrations of the products and reactants
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Le Chatelier's Principle
If a raction at equilibrium is subjected to a change in concentration, pressure or temperatire, the position of equilibrium will move to counteract the change
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Dynamic Equilibrium
The forward reaction is going at exactly the same rate a the bacward reaction. The concentration of reactants and products remain constant
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Oxidation State
The oxidation state of an element tells you the total number of electrons it has donated or accepted
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Structural Isomers
Structural Isomers have the same molecular formula, but a different structural formula
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Chain Isomers
Chain isomers have the same functional groups but different arrangements of the carbon skeleteon
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Position Isomers
Position isomers have the same skeleton and the same atoms or groups of atoms attached. The atoms or groups of atoms are attached to different carbon atoms
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Functional Group Isomers
Functinal group isomers have the same atoms arranged into different functional groups
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Stereisomers
They have the same structural formular, but their atoms are arranged differently in space.
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Alkanes
Alkans are saturated hydrocarbons. This means that they only contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
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Thermal Cracking
Breaking long-chain alkanes into smaller hydrocarbons with high temperature and high pressure. It produces a lot of alkenes.
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Catalytic Cracing
Breaking long-chain alkanes into smaller hydrocarbons using a zeolite catalst. This means it is done at slight pressure and around 1/2 the temperature of Thermal Cracking
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Halogenoalkane
An alkane with at least one halogen atom in place of a hydrogen atom
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Polymers
Polymers are long chain molecules formed when lots of small molecules called monomers join together
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Ionic Bond
The bonds created with electrostatic forces of attraction between the postive and negatively charged ions
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Metallic Bonding
Metallic Bonding is where the positive metal ions are held together by a sea of delocalised negative electrions
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Covalent Bonding
A shared pair of elections
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Dative Covalent Bonding
A shared pair of electrons where the two elections come from the same atom.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Mass of an atom of an isotope of an element on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12

Back

Relative Isotopic Mass

Card 3

Front

Averagemass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Average mass of a formular unit on a scale where an atom of Carbon-12 is exactly 12

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The enery needed to remove 1 electron from the outer shell from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of a gaseous 1+ ion

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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