Chemistry- Making use of metals

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 16-08-16 02:45
Name the unreactive metals.
Silver, gold, platinum
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How do uncreative metals occur?
In their native form
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What is the Earth's crust daily made up of?
45% oxygen, 27 % silicon, 8% aluminium
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What makes up silica?
Oxygen and silicon
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What is the most abundant metal?
Aluminium
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Name 4 precious metals
Gold, silver, platinum, palladium
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What is an ore?
The rock from which the metal is obtained
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How do you call an ore that has little useful metal?
Low grade ore
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What does the extraction of a metal depend on?
Its reactivity
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What is the method of extraction before carbon?
Electrolysis
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What is the method of extraction between hydrogen and carbon?
Heating with carbon or carbon oxide
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What is the method of extraction after hydrogen?
There isn't any because metals are in their native form
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How is the zinc ore called?
Zinc blende
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What are the uses of zinc?
Galvanising, sacrificial protection, alloys, batteries
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Describe how zinc is extracted from its ore.
Zinc ore is mainly zinc sulfide. It is roasted in air => zinc oxide+sulfur dioxide. Zinc oxide is reduced by using carbon monoxide or by electrolysis.
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How is zinc obtained using carbon monoxide?
The reaction is carried out in a blast furnace. Zinc and carbon dioxide are produced. Fine mixture contains zinc and **** of impurities. Zinc is separated by fractional distillation.
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How is zinc obtained using electrolysis?
Zinc oxide is dissolved in dilute sulfuric acid (compound must be either melted or in a solution but it has a hight melting point and it's insoluble in water). ZnO neutralises acid=> solution of ZnSO4. Electrolysis= Zn at cathode.
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What is the iron ore called?
Hematite
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What is use to extract iron?
Blast furnace
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What mixture is added to the furnace?
The charge
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What's in the charge?
Hematite, limestone and coke
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What is limestone?
Calcium carbonate
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What is coke?
Made from coal and is almost pure carbon
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What are the three reactions in iron extraction?
C+O2=CO2; C+CO2=2CO; Fe2O3+3CO=2Fe+3CO2
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What is stage one in the blast furnace?
The blast of hot air makes the coke burn, giving off heat. Carbon is oxidised
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What is stage two in the blast furnace?
Carbon monoxide is made. Carbon dioxide is reduced as it reacts with more coke. Reaction is endothermic.
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What is stage three in the blast furnace?
Iron oxide is reduced and carbon monoxide is oxidised. Iron trickles at the bottom of the furnace.
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What is limestone for?
It breaks down in the heat of the furnace CaCO3=CaO+CO2. CaO reacts with sand (silica) and forms calcium silicate, which runs down the furnace and floats on the iron
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What are the waste gases?
Hot carbon dioxide and nitrogen come out from top of furnace. Heat is transferred from them to heat incoming blast of air.
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What is the iron from blast furnace called?
Pig iron
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What is cast iron?
Iron from the blast furnace that is run into holds to harden. It is very brittle because of its high carbon concentration
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What is the aluminium ore called?
Bauxite
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What colour is alumina and what is it?
It's aluminium oxide that is obtained after removing impurities and it's white
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Describe the tank where electrolysis go alumina happens.
It's large and out of steel. It is lied with carbon that acts as a cathode. Big blocks of carbon hang in the middle of the tank as anode
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Why is alumina dissolved in cryolite?
Because it has a very high melting point of 2045. It would be impossible to keep the tank that hot.
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What is alumina dissolved in?
Cryolite (950 degrees), sodium aluminium fluoride
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What happens at cathode during electrolysis of alumina?
Aluminium ions gain electrons and aluminium drops to the bottom of the cell
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What happens at anode during electrolysis of alumina?
Oxygen ions lose electrons. Oxygen gass bubbles off and reacts with anode
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Why do carbon anodes get eaten away during electrolysis of alumina?
Because oxygen reacts with them forming carbon dioxide
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What colour is aluminium?
Bluish-silver, shiny
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Is aluminium dangerous?
No, it's non toxic
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How is aluminium used and why?
Overhead electricity cables- good conductor, ductile, resists corrosion. Cooking foil- non-toxic, no corrosion. Coating on CDs- shiny surface that reflects laser.
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How is copper used and why?
Electrical wiring- great conductor, ductile. Saucepans- malleable, unreactive, tough, conducts
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How is zinc used and why?
Torch batteries- gives a current. Galvanising- resists corrosion, sacrificial protection
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What does turning a metal in an alloy do?
It improves its properties and makes it more useful
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What is the composition of brass?
70% copper+ 30% zinc
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Where is brass used?
Musical instruments, door knobs
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What is the composition of aluminium alloy?
90.25 % aluminium+ 6% zinc+ 2.5% magnesium
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Why does iron need to be turned into an alloy?
Because it's soft and it rusts
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What is the composition of mild steel?
99.7% iron + 0.3% carbon
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Does mild steel corrode?
Yes
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What are the uses of mild steel?
Buildings, ships, car bodies, machinery
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What is the composition of stainless steel?
70% iron + 20% chromium+ 10% nickel
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What are the properties of stainless steel?
Hard, rustproof
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What are the uses of stainless steel?
Cutlery, equipment in machine factories
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How is lime, calcium oxide, also called?
Quicklime
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What are steels made from?
Molten iron from blast furnace
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How are unwanted impurities removed in making steel?
Molten iron is poured into a basic oxygen converter where oxygen reacts with carbon and sulfur to form CO2 and SO2. O2 reacts with phosphorus to form P2O5. CaO is added. It reacts with SiO2 and P2O5 since they are acidic= > ****
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What can too much carbon do to steel?
Make it brittle and hard to shape
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do uncreative metals occur?

Back

In their native form

Card 3

Front

What is the Earth's crust daily made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What makes up silica?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the most abundant metal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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