Biology ks3 eoy8 exam

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What are the seven nutrients?
Carbohydrates,lipids,protein,vitamins, minerals,water ,fibre (fibre isn't technically nutrient however it is important in maintaining a balanced diet)
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State what a nutrient is?
Nutrients are important substances that your body needs to survive and stay healthy.
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What is the function of carbohydrate?
The function of carbohydrates is to provide energy ( which is released slowly)
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What is the function of lipids?
Lipids provide a storage energy, insolation under the skin, and protect your organs from damage.
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what is the function of proteins?
The function of protein is growth and repair of muscles and organs.
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What are the functions of vitamins and mineral?
Vitamins and mineral is keep you healthy
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What is the function of water ?
Water keeps you hydrated
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What is the function of fibre ?
Fibre provides bulk in the gut
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Method for starch food test
Add iodine solution (orange), should turn purple/black is starch present.
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Method for lipids food test
Rub filter paper on food. If present paper should turn translucent.
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Other method for lipid food test
Add ethanol (colourless). Should turn cloudy is lipids present.
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Method for sugar food test
Add Benedict's solution ( blue). Heat in water bath, should turn orange-red.
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Method for protein food test
Add copper sulfate solution (pale blue liquid). Then add sodium hydroxide (colourless). If there's protein, it will turn purple .
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Where do we get our energy from?
We get our energy from nutrients in food. It is measured in joules or kilojoules.
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What are some affects of being overweight?
Being overweight can give you an increased chance of heart diseased,diabetes, strokes and some cancers.
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What are some affects of being underweight ?
Poor immune system, often tired and lack of vitamins / minerals.
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Name one vitamin deficiency ?
Vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness and vitamin di deficient see is can lead to Ricketts
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How can you maintain a healthy diet ?
You have to use as much eneryg as you take in.
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What is the digestive system ?
It is a group of organs that purpose is to digest food and absorb nutrients. During digestion large molecules are broken down into smaller mole us of nutrients. This system is order is GULLET STOMACH SMALL INTESTINE LARGE INTESTINE RECTUM AND ANUS
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How do nutrients get absorbed?
Nutrients get absorbed by tiny structures in the small intestines called vili. They stick out of the walls to make a larger surface area.
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Where can we find bacteria in our bodies?
Inside the large intestine there is bacteria. Because of the bacteria in fibre.
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What juice is in the digestive system?
There is a special juice called enzymes. There are different enzymes for nutrients: carbohydrase,protease,lipase.
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Carbohydrase process
Carbohydrase + digestion --> sugar molecules
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Protease process
Protease + digestion --> amino acid molecules
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Lipase process
Lipase + digestion--> fatty acid molecules and glycerol molecules
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What are drugs?
Drugs are chemical substances the affect the way your body works
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Types of drugs
Recreational and medicinal
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Alcohols name is ethanol and ethanol is a depressant. This means that it affects your brain and your nervous system. Alcohol can damage your liver this means that you can filter out dangerous toxins and fluids.
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Why is drinking alcohol while pregnant dangerous ?
Drinking while pregnant is dangerous because it can cause stillbirths and miss carriages .it can also give the baby facial problems and a poor immune system .
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Why is smoking dangerous?
Smoking can cause breathing problems lung cancer Heart-attack and strokes.
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Passive smoking is what affects others around.
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Inside a cigarette
Tar is a sticky black material that Collects in your lungs. Nicotine is an addictive drug that speeds rup your nervous system it is a stimulant .carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that stops your blood from carrying as much oxygen as it should.
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What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is the chemical reaction in which plants take in carbon dioxide is and water and produce oxygen and glucose.
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Where does photosynthesis occur
Photosynthesis occurs in leaf cells chloroplast mainly. However it also occurs in the stem. The leaves and stems are made up of green pigments.these are mainly chlorophyll
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What is chemosynthesis?
Chemosynthesis is The process of some species of bacteria are use a variety of chemical reaction is to produce glucose
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What aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration is the chance of Glucose(energy) into carbon dockside
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen --> Carbon dioxide + water
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where does respiration take place?
Respiration happens in the mitochondria of the cell
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --> lactic acid(+energy)
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What is the word equation for fermentation?
Glucose --> ethanol + carbon dioxide
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What is the food chain ?
A food chain is a diagram the shows how oragnisms eat.
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Order of food chain.
Producer, herbivore ,carnivore (consumers)
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What can drinking for a long time cause?
Stomach ulcers and heart disease.
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What is the stomata opened and closed by?
Guard cells open and close the stomata
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Why do plants need nitrate?
A plant needs nitrate for it to grow healthy. Without nitrate, the plant will grow poorly , older and its leaves will turn yellow.
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Why do plants need phosphate?
A plant needs phosphate to have healthy roots. Without phosphate, the plant will have poor root growth and younger leaves will turn purple.
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Why do plants need potassium?
Potassium is for healthy leaves and flowers.without potassium the plant will be yellow and have dead patches.
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Why do plants need magnesium?
Magnesium is to make chlorophyll. Without magnesium leaves will turn yellow.
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What do animals Compete for ?
Food, water, mates and space.
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What do plants compete for?
Light,water,space ,minerals.
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What is adaptation?
Adaptations are characteristics that help organisms to survive and reproduce.
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Give an example of adaptation
Animals adapt to the cold by hibernating and migrating.
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What is variation?
A variation is a difference in the characteristic between organisms.
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Types of variation.
Environmental & inherited.
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What is continuous variations?
Continuous variation is a characteristic that has any range of values.
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What is discontinuous variation?
Discontinuous variation is a characteristic that has a certain amount of values.
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What is DNA?
DNA is arranged in long strand of chromosomes.
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How many chromosomes do people have.
46 chromosomes. 23 from the mother. 23 from the farther.
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Natural selection
All organisms have evolved from their common ancestors . Through the process of natural selection.
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Gene banks
Gene banks store genetic samples from organisms. This may help prevent extinction.
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Card 2


State what a nutrient is?


Nutrients are important substances that your body needs to survive and stay healthy.

Card 3


What is the function of carbohydrate?


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Card 4


What is the function of lipids?


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Card 5


what is the function of proteins?


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