Chemistry Key Words From Spec

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Isoptope
atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons and masses
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Relative Atomic Mass
The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of Carbon-12
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Relative Isotopic Mass
The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative Molecular Mass
The weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Relative Formula Mass
The weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Amount of Substance
The quantity of which units is moles. Chemists use this as a way to count atoms
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Avogadros Constant
The number of particles per mole (6.02 × 1023 mol–1)
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Molar Mass
The mass per mole of a substance
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Empirical Formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
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Molecular Formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Anhydrous
A substance that contains no water molecules.
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Hydrated
A crystalline compound containing water molecules
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Water of Crystallisation
Water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons or increase in oxidation number
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Reduction
Gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number
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First Ionisation Energy
The energy reguired to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Successive Ionisation
A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn
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Ionic Bonding
Electrostatic attraction between oppositelycharged ions
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Covalent Bond
A shared pair of electrons
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Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond
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Hydrogen Bonding
A strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen molecule on one atom in a molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom on a different molecule
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Metallic Bonding
The attraction of positive ions to delocalised electrons
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Disproportionation
A reaction in which an element is simultaneously oxidised and reduced
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General Formula
The simplest algebraic formula of a member of a homologous series
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Structural Formula
The minimal detail that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal Formula
The simplified organic formula, shown by removing hydrogen atoms from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups,
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Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2
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Functional Group
A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Salt
Any chemical compound forned from an acid when a H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion
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Electron Sheilding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer shell electrons
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Dative Covalent Bond
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonded atoms only
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Van der Waal's
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Permanent Dipole-Dipole Force
A weak attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Card 2

Front

The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of Carbon-12

Back

Relative Atomic Mass

Card 3

Front

The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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