Chemistry key words

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actual yield
mass of product actually obtained from a reaction
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alcohols
a family of organic compounds containing an OH group
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alkali
compound that contains hydroxide ions, OH-
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alkali metal
very reactive metal found in Group 1 of the periodic table, for example sodium
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alkaline solution
aqueous solution with pH more than 7, the concentration of OH-(aq) is higher than that of H+(aq)
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alkanes
a family of hydrocarbons with single covalent bonds, found in crude oil
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alkenes
a family of hydrocarbons with double covalent bonds, for example ethene
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alloy
a mixture of two or more metals, with useful properties different from the individual metal
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alpha particle
particle emitted from the nuclei of radioactive atoms and consiting of two protons and two neutrons
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alternating current (a.c.)
electric current where the direction of the flow of current constantly reverses, as in mains electricity
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amino acids
small molecules from which proteins are built
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anode
positive electrode
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aqueous solution
substance(s) dissolved in water
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argon 21
the most common noble gas, makes up nearly 1% of the air
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atmosphere
thin layer of gas surrounding a planet
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atom
the basic 'building block' of an element that cannot be chemically broken down
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atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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attraction
force that pulls, or hold, objects together
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base
substance that neutralises an acid to form a salt and water
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bauxite
main ore of aluminium
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biodegradable
a biodegradable material can be broken down by microorganisms
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biodiesel
fuel made from plant oils such as rapeseed
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biofuel
fuel such as wood, ethanol or biodiesel, obtained from living plants or animals
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blast furnace
furnace for extracting iron from iron ore
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boiling
change of state from liquid to gas that happens at the boiling point of a substance
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brass
alloy of copper and zinc
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brittle
easily cracked or broken by hitting or bending
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brownfield site
former industrial site that may be redeveloped for other uses
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calcium carbonate
compound with chemical formula CaCO3, main component of limestone
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carbon cycle
the way in which carbon atoms pass between living organisms and their environment
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carbon dating
method of determining the age of archaeological specimens by measuring the proportion of teh carbon-14 isotope
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carbon dioxide
one of the gases emitted from burning fossil fuels that contribute to global warming allowing it to cool and solidify
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catalyst
substance added to a chemical reaction to alter the reaction rate, without being used up in the process
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cathode
negative electrode
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cement
substance made by heating limestone with clay, when mixed with water it sets hard like stone
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charge
particles or objects can be positively or negatively electrically charged, or neutral. Similar charges repel each other, opposite charges attract
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chemical bond
attractive force between atoms that holds them together (can be covalent or ionic)
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chemical reaction
process in which one or more substances are changed into other substances, chemical reaction involve rearranging atoms and energy charges
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chlorophyll
green pigment inside chloroplasts in some plant cells, which absorbs energy from sunglight
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cholesterol
chemical needed for the formation of cell membranes, but that increases the risk of heart disease if there is too much in the blood
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chromatogram
pattern of spots produced by paper or thin-layer chromatography
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chromatography
analytical technique for separating and identifying the components of a mixture, using paper or a thin layer or column of adsorbent.
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coal
solid fossil fuel formed from plant material, composed mainly of carbon
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collison frequency
number of collisons per second between the particles involved in a chemical reaction
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collison theory
relates reaction rates to the frequency and energy of collisons between the reacting particles
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combustion
process where substances react with oxygen, releasing heat
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compound
substance composed of two or more elements joined together by chemical bonds, for example H20
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Card 2

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alcohols

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a family of organic compounds containing an OH group

Card 3

Front

alkali

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

alkali metal

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

alkaline solution

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