Chemistry Key Terms pt 2

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Electrophile
An atom (or group of atoms) which is/are attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
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Electrophilic Addition
An addition reaction in which the first step is attack by an electrophile on a region of high electron density
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Fractional Distillation
The separation of components in a liquid mixture by their different boiling points into fractions with different compositions
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Functional Group
The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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Giant Covalent Lattice
A 3-D structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds
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Heterolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming a cation (positive ion) and an anion (negative ion)
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Homologous Series
A series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH .
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Homolytic Fission
The breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom, forming 2 radicals
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Hydrogen Bond
A stong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom of -NH, -OH or HF on one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom containg N,O or F on a different molecule
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Induced Dipole-Dipole Interaction (London Forces)
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in different molecules
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Intermolecular Force
An attractive force between molecules. Intermolecular forces can be London Forces, permanent dipole-dipole interactions or Hydrogen bonding
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Ionic Bonding
The electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions
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Metallic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
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Non-Polar
With no charge spearation across a bond or in a molecule
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π-bond
A bond formed by the sideways overlap of 2 p-orbitals, with the electron density above and the plane of the bonding atoms
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Partial Dissociation
The splitting of some of a species in solution into aqueous ions
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Permanent Dipole-Dipole Interaction
An attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules
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Permanent Dipole
A small charge difference that does not change across a bond, with δ+ and δ- partial charges on the bonded atoms: the result of the bonded atoms having different electronegativities
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Polar
With δ+ and δ- charges at different ends of the molecule
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Principal Quantum Number (n)
A number representig the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of orbitals with the same n-value are referred to as electron shells or energy levels
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Radical
A species of an unpaired electron
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σ-bond
A bond formed by the overlap of one orbital from each bonding atom, consisting of 2 electrons and with the electron density centred around a line directly between the nuclei of the 2 atoms
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Simple Molecular Lattice
A 3-D structure of molecules, bonded together by weak intermolecular forces
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Standard Conditions
A pressure of 100 kPa, a stated temperature, usually 298K (25°C) and a concentration of 1 mol dm (for reactions with aqueous solutions)
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arrangements of the atom in space
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Stoichiometry
The ratio of the amount, in moles, of each substance in a chemical equation (essentially the ratio of the balancing numbers)
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Sub-Shell
A group of orbitals of the same type within a shell
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Titre
The volume added from the burette when the volume of one solution has exactly reacted with the other solution
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Water of Crystallisation
Water molecules that are bonded into a crystalline structure of a compound
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An addition reaction in which the first step is attack by an electrophile on a region of high electron density

Back

Electrophilic Addition

Card 3

Front

The separation of components in a liquid mixture by their different boiling points into fractions with different compositions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A 3-D structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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