Chemistry- Industrial Processes

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What does the Haber Process produce?
Ammonia
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What two elements need to react for ammonia to be formed?
Hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen
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How is the reaction unique?
It's reversible
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What conditions does the FORWARD reaction require? (Theoretical conditions)
low temperature and high pressure
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What conditions are required for making ammonia industrially?
350-450 degrees, 150-200 atmospheric pressure and an iron catalyst
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What kind of reaction is the industrial Haber process?
Exothermic reaction
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In what state is ammonia extracted?
liquid after condensing
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Why is a relatively high temperature chosen?
At a low temperature the reaction would be too slow and costly
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Why is a relatively low pressure chosen?
The equipment required for high pressures would be too costly too make
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What percentage is the field at for the Haber Process?
15-40%
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What is done to the remaining raw materials?
Recycled to be more efficient and cost effective.
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Why is the iron catalyst used?
To increase the reaction
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Why happens to the iron catalyst after a while?
It becomes poisoned and reduces the speed of the reaction
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How is ammonia used in fertilisers?
Nitrogenous fertiliser
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What does some ammonia go to in the Haber Process?
Nitric acid
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What catalyst is used for the ammonia to nitric acid reaction?
Platinum/ Rhodium catalyst
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Describe the oxidisation of Ammonia
Ammonia is burned in oxygen to produce nitrogen monoxide, this is heated over a Pt/Rh catalyst to produce nitrogen dioxide and this becomes nitric acid.
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What is the process of forming Sulfuric Acid?
Contact Process
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Stage 1 of the Contact Process
Sulfur burned in air= sulfur dioxide
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Stage 2 of the Contact process
Sulfur dioxide is reacted with excess air over a vanadium catalyst at 420 degrees and at normal atmospheric pressure to oxidise to sulfur trioxide
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What is the yield of the second stage of the contact process, producing sulfur trioxide?
95%
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What type of reaction is Stage 2 of the Contact Process and what can be concluded from this?
Exothermic reaction, a lower temperature favours a forward reaction
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At stage 2, why is a temperature of 420 degrees chosen?
Any lower would be too slow and costly.
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Describe stage 3 of the Contact Process?
Sulfur trioxide is absorbed in concentrated sulfuric acid, as it cannot be directly absorbed into 100% water as the reaction is too violent and produces only acid mist
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Describe stage 4 of the Contact Process
More water is added to produce a less concentrated sulfuric acid.
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What is most ammonia used to make?
Fertilisers rich in protein (plants), used on farmland to increase crop growth
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What happens to fertilisers when it rains on the ground it has been spread on?
nitrogen is dissolved into the soil
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What is ammonia an example of and what can it be neutralised with to form what?
Alkali, neutralised with acids to form ammonium salts.
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Advantages of fertilisers?
Increased crop yield and health, relatively cheap and improves ground
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Disadvantages of fertilisers?
Eutrophication, entering water supply and blue baby syndrome
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What is high concentrations of nitrogen to humans?
Toxic, interfering with oxygen transport in blood
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What does high concentrations of nitrogen in the blood cause in infants?
Blue baby syndrome
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How else can sulfuric acid be used?
Dehydrating agent, the elements of water are removed
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Describe the dehydration of Copper Sulfate?
Goes from blue to white, crumbles and loses crystaline appearance
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Describe the dehydration of Sugar
Creates a black solid when added to concentrated sulfuric acid, acid removes hydrogen and oxygen . The black mass is carbon
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What is the adult equivalent of blue baby syndrome?
Cancer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What two elements need to react for ammonia to be formed?

Back

Hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen

Card 3

Front

How is the reaction unique?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What conditions does the FORWARD reaction require? (Theoretical conditions)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What conditions are required for making ammonia industrially?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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