Chemistry - Everything C4 for OCR Gateway Exam!

A collection of Questions focused on C4 of Chemistry. Includes all important information and facts that are needed for the exam.
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What did Dalton describe atoms as, and what did he say made up elements?
-Solid Spheres -Different Solid Spheres make up different elements
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What did JJ Thompson conclude and what did he call his model?
Measured charge and mass and discovered atoms were not Solid Spheres; they had electrons as well. -Model was called 'Plum Pudding Model'
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What experiment did Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden conduct, and what did it include?
-Gold Foil Experiment -Fired Positively charged particles at very thin sheet of gold
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What did they expect to happen and what actually happened?
-Expected all particles to be deflected back. -Particles actually passed straight through the gold atoms and only a few were deflected back.
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What theory did Rutherford come up with, and what did it show?
-Theory of Nuclear atom. -Showed Positivley charged nucleus surrounded by floating electrons in an empty space.
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What did Bohr suggest about the structure of Atoms?
Electrons are contained in fixed shells oribits in shells around the nucleus
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Where is the mass of an atom concentrated?
In the Nucleus
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What is the mass and charge of a Proton, Nuetron and Electron?
Proton: Mass = 1, Charge = +1. Nuetron: Mass = 1, Charge = 0. Electron: Mass = 0.0005, Charge = -1
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What does the atomic number tell you about an atom?
How many Protons there are
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What does the mass number show?
The number of Protons and Nuetrons in the atom.
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How do you work out the number of nuetrons in an atom?
Subtract the atomic number from the mass number
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What is Ionic Bonding?
When atoms lose of gain electrons by transferring them to complete outer shells and form charged particles.
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What are Ionic Bonds formed from and what do they form?
-Formed between metals and non-metals. -Produce Giant Ionic Structures.
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Do Ions conduct electricity when solid? Why/Why not?
They do not conduct electricity because the ions form a closely packed 'lattice arangement' so they are not free to move.
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What strength are the chemical bonds between all the ions?
Very Strong Chemical Bonds
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What are two examples of a giant Ionic Structure?
Magnesium Oxide (MgO) and Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
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Why does MgO and NaCl have high metlting and boiling points?
They both have strong attraction between oppositely charged ions. A lot of energy is needed to overcome the forced.
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What two examples make the forces between MgO and NaCl hard to overcome?
-MgO ions have double the charge that NaCl ioins have. -Oxygen ions are smaller that Chlorine ions so MgO can pack together more closely.
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What do you have to do to work out the formula of an ionic compound?
Balance the +ve and -ve charges in the equation, eg, K^+ + Cl^- = KCl
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What do 'Dot and Cross Diagrams' show?
What happens to the electrons in Ionic Bonds
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What happens in a Covalent Bond?
Non-metals are bonding together by sharing electrons to complete the outer shell.
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What are the forces of attraction and intermolecular bonds between covalent bonds like? How does this effect melting and boiling points?
Intermolecular bonds and forces of attraction are weak. Boiling and melting point is low.
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What are Group 1 elements known as?
Alkali Metals
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What are three physical properties of Group 1 Metals?
.Low Melting and Boiling Points. .Low density (Li, Na, K, float on water) .Very soft
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What is Oxidation?
LOSS of Electrons
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How does a Splint indicate whether Hydrogen is produced?
A lighted Splint causes the Hydrogen to ignite, creating a 'squeaky pop'
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What is made when Group 1 elements react with water?
An Alkali and Hydrogen Gas, eg, Sodium + Water = Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrogen
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What colour does Lithium, Sodium and Potassium, burn?
Lithium = Red Flame .Sodium = Orange/yellow Flame .Potassium = Lilac Flame
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What are Group 7 Elements known as?
Halogens
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What happens to Group 7 Elements as they go down the Periodic table?
-They become less reactive -Melting and Boiling points increase
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What are the properties of Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine, at room temperature?
Chlorine = Fairly reactive, dense green gas, poisonous. Bromine = dense, poisonous, orange liquid. Iodine = dark grey, crystalline solid
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What is reductions?
Loss of Electrons
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What is formed when Group 7 elements react with Group 1 elements?
Form Salts called 'Metal Halides' ,eg, Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride
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What is a displacement reaction?
When a more reactive element moves a less reactive element out of a reaction
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What is chlorine displaced by and what solution does it create?
Displaced by Bromine and Iodine to create solution of Bromide or Iodide, eg, Chlorine + Potassium Iodide = Iodine + Potassium Chloride or Chlorine + Potassiu bromide = Bromine + Potassium Chloride
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What type of bonding holds metals together and what do they allow?
Metallic Bonding. Allow outer shell electron to move freely
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How is the strength of metallic bonds affected by the atomic radius?
Strength of Bonds deacrease as atomic radius increases
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What does Malleable mean?
Object can be hammered into different shapes
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What are the 4 examples of Metals and their uses?
Stainless Steel - Saucepans .Copper - Electrical Wiring .Aluminium - Aeroplanes .Steel - Bridges
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What is a Superconductor?
A metal that has been exposed to very low temperatures, meaning it has lost its resistance
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What happens if a metal doesn't have any resistance? What does it mean can happen?
Electrical Energy isn't turned into heat, so energy isn't lost/none is wasted. It means a current can carry on flowing, forever, through the metal
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What are Superconductors used for? (3 ways)
.Power Cables that don't lose power. .Strong Electromagnets that don't need a power source. .Very Fast Electronic Circuits
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What are the elements in the middle of the Periodic Table called?
Transition Metals
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What are the properties of Transition Metals?
Typical Metallic properties, eg, conducts electricity, strong, malleable, etc
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What 2 examples of Transition metals are used as catalysts, and for what?
Iron - Used in Haber Process to make ammonia. Nickel - Used to hydrogenate alkenes to make margarine
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Why are the compounds of transition elements colourful?
Due to the transition metal ion they contain
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What are the colours of the compounds: Iron (II), Iron (III) and Copper?
Iron (II) = light green, Iron (III) = orange/brown, Copper = blue
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What is Thermal Decomposition?
When a substance is broken down into two or more other substances when heated
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What metals break down when heated?
Transition Metal Carbonates
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What do transition metal carbonates break down into?
Metal Oxide and Carbon Dioxide, eg, Copper (III) Carbonate = Copper oxide + Carbon dioxide
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What is a Precipitate reaction?
When two solutions react and an INSOLUBLE solid forms in the solution
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What is the precipitate in a precipitate reaction?
The Solid
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What is made when soluble transition metal compounds react with sodium hydroxide?
An Insoluble Hydroxide, eg, Iron (III) Sulfate + Sodium Hydroxide = Iron (III) oxide + Sodium sulfate
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In the UK, where are the two places we get water from?
1) Surface Water: lakes, rivers, reservoirs 2) Groundwater: aquifers (rocks that trap water underground)
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What are the three steps of water purification?
1) Filteration 2) Sedimentation 3) Chlorination
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What impurities can be found in Tap Water? (3 things)
1) Nitrate Residues from excess fertilisers 2) Lead compounds from old lead pipes 3) Pesticide residues from spraying to close to water source
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What is the method of getting Fresh Water from Sea Water?
Distillation
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How do you test for dissolved ions in water?
Though Precipitate reactions
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How do you test for Sulfate Ions in Water, using Barium Chloride? (3 Steps)
1) Add dilute HCl to test sample 2) Add 10 drops of Barium Chloride solution 3) If white precipitate forms, sulfate ions are present
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How do you test for Halide Ions using Silver Nitrate? (3 Steps)
1) Add dilute nitric acid to test sample 2) Add 10 drops of Silver Nitrate solution 3) Precipitate will for if Halide ions present
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What colour precipitate will Chlorine Ions, Bromide Ions, Iodide Ions, go when testing for Halide Ions using Silver Nitrate?
Chloride Ions - White Precipitate Bromide Ions - Cream Precipitate Iodide Ions - Pale Yellow Precipitate
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did JJ Thompson conclude and what did he call his model?

Back

Measured charge and mass and discovered atoms were not Solid Spheres; they had electrons as well. -Model was called 'Plum Pudding Model'

Card 3

Front

What experiment did Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden conduct, and what did it include?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did they expect to happen and what actually happened?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What theory did Rutherford come up with, and what did it show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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