Chemistry Definitions

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Addition
The joining of two molecules, one of which has a double bond, to form a single product molecule.
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Alicyclic Hydrocarbons
The carbon atoms are joined in a ring but are not aromatic.
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Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
The carbon atoms are joined together in either straight (unbranched) chains or branched chains.
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Aromatic Hydrocarbons
There is at least one benzene ring in the structure.
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Atom Economy
The Relative Molecular Mass of the useful Products divided by the Relative Molecular Mass of all the reactants multiplied by 100.
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Displayed Formula
shows all the covalent bonds and all the atoms present in a molecule.
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Electrophile
A species which is attracted to an electron rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
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Elimination
When a small molecule is removed from a larger molecule. Two product are formed from one reactant and one of the products has a double bond.
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Empirical Formula
the simplest whole number ratio of the elements present in a compound. e.g. the empirical formula of butene (C4H8) is CH2
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Esterification
The acid-catalysed formation of an ester from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
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E Z Isomers
Have the same structural formula because a non rotational C = C bond due to overlap of pz orbitals. Must also have different groups attached to the carbon atoms either side of the double bond.
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Free Radical
An atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron. e.g. .CH3
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Functional Group
The reactive part of a molecule which gives a characteristic set of reactions. (An atom or group of atoms which gives rise to a homologous series).
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General Formula
is one which may be written for each homologous series e.g. (CnH2n+2 for alkanes).
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Heterolytic fission
When a covalent bond breaks and the electrons from the covalent bond end up on just one atom or group. This forms a positive ion and a negative ion.
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Homologous Series
A series of organic molecules with the same functional group which differ in the addition of CH2 to the chain as you go down the group from one member to the next. Compounds in the same homologous series show similar chemical properties.
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Homolytic Fission
When a covalent bond breaks and one electron from the covalent bond ends up on each of the atoms to form two free radicals. eg. Cl2  2Cl.
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Initiation
The first step in a free radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by heat or ultraviolet light.
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Isomerisation
The conversion of a straight-chain alkane into a branch-chain isomer e.g. C5H12  CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH3
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Molecular Formula
shows the total number of each atom present in a molecule of the compound. e.g. C6H5NO2
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Molecular Ion
In mass spectrometry this is the heaviest large peak and is caused by the loss of one electron from the whole molecule. It has the same mass as the relative molecular mass of the compound
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Monomer
A small molecule (often containing a C = C) repeated many times to build a polymer molecule.
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Nomenclature
The naming system for compounds.
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Nucleophile
A species which can donate a pair of electrons to an electron deficient centre with the subsequent formation of a covalent bond.
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Pi Bond
A molecular orbital formed by the overlap of two atomic p orbitals in the formation of a double bond.
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Polymer
The long molecular chain built from many monomer units joined end to end.
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Propagation
The stage in a free radical substitution which constitutes the reaction steps of the chain reaction. One of the reactants is a free radical and another free radical is generated as one of the products.
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Saturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon which contains only C - C single bonds.
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Skeletal Formula
show the carbon skeleton only, hydrogen atoms are omitted, other atoms e.g. oxygen, halogens are shown as in a structural formula.
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Steroisomerisation
When organic compounds have the same molecular formula and structural formula, but a different arrangement of atoms in space (E Z isomers)
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Structural Formula
Indicates how the atoms are joined together in a molecule. (only one unambiguous structure can be drawn from a structural formula)
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Structural Isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but with different structures. Or Compounds with the same molecular formula but with different displayed formula due to a different arrangement of groups.
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Substitution
In the course of a reaction an atom or group of atoms is swapped for another.
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Termination
The step at the end of a free radical substitution reaction which occurs when 2 free radicals combine to produce a molecule.
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Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
A hydrocarbon which contains one or more C = C bond.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The carbon atoms are joined in a ring but are not aromatic.

Back

Alicyclic Hydrocarbons

Card 3

Front

The carbon atoms are joined together in either straight (unbranched) chains or branched chains.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

There is at least one benzene ring in the structure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The Relative Molecular Mass of the useful Products divided by the Relative Molecular Mass of all the reactants multiplied by 100.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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